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ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE- fltt 

President of the • ,, 



Board of Regents 



UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO, 



1896, 






. /. 



'« 



SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



.. . . OF THE . . . 



^ President of the Board of Regents 



. . OF THE .... 



University of Idaho. 



Board of Regents, 



Hon. William Budge Paris 

Hon. S. M. Coffin Caldwell 

Hon. James Edwards Grano-eville 

Hon. a. J. Green Moscow 

Hon. C, L. Heitman Rathdrum 

Hon. Frank E. Cornwall Moscow 

Hon. Wm. Kaufmann Moscow 

Hon. George C. Parkinson Preston 

Dr. C. W. Shaff Lewlston 

OFFICERS OF THE BOARD. 

Hon. S. M. Coffin President 

Hon. Wm. Kaufmann Vice-President 

Hon. a. J. Green Secretary 

Hon. R. S. Browne Treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Hon. S. M. Coffin, Hon. A. J. Green, 

Hon. William Kaufmann. 



FACULTY AND INSTRUCTORS. 

Franklin B. Gault, M. S., President. 

Sociolog'y^ Log'ic^ a7id Political Ecoyiomy. 
John B. Ostrander, A. M., C. E., 

Professor of Civil Eng'iyieering^ and Mechanic 
Arts. 
Charles W. McCurdy, M. Sc, Ph. D., 

Professor of Che7nistry. 
Willard K. Clement, Ph. D., 

Professor of Lang'iiag'es . 
Louis P. Henderson, Ph. B., 

Professor of Botany, 
John M. Aldrich, M. S., 

Professor of Zoolog-y, 
Charles P. Fox, M. Agr., 

Professor of Ag-riciilture. 
Edward R. Chrisman, First Lieut., U. S. A., 

Professor of Military Science and Tactics, a)id 
Adjunct Professor of Mathematics. 
Edward Goodwin, E. M., 

Professor of Miniyig". 
Harriett E. Cushman, A. M., Preceptress. 

Instructor in Literature. 
S. Annette Bowman, 

Ifistructor in Free Hand Drawing-. 
Sara E. Poe, B. L., 

Instructor in English Grammar. 
John E. Bonebright, B. S., 

Instructor in Physics^ and Mathematics. 
I. J. Cogswell, 

Director of Music. 
J. J. Anthony, 

Inst7'uctor in Wood Work. 
Florence M. Corbett, A. B., 

Instructor in English. 



A. P. Adair, B. C. E., 

Instructor in Mathematics and Eng-ineerin^. 

C. L. KiRTi^^Y, B. C. E., 

Instructor in Mathematics and Science. 

K. C. Egbert, B. Agr., 

Assistant in Ag-riculture. 
SteivIvA M. Allen, Ph. B., 

Assistant Librarian. 



J. M. Aldrich, 

Secretary of the Faculty, and Curator of 
Museum,. 

J. E. Bonebright, 
Librarian. 



O. B. EdgetT, Janitor. 
W. A. ^UMHOFF, Fireman. 

STANDING COnniTTEES OF THE FACULTY. 

1895=1896. 

Admission — Professors Ostrander, Aldrich and 
Clement- 

Schedules — Professors McCurdy and Ostrander, 
and Miss Bowman. 

Rules and Dicipline — Ivieut. Chrisman, Miss 
Cushman, Professors Aldrich, Mc- 
Curdy and Fox. 

Library— Mr. Bonebrig-lit, Miss Cushman, and 
Professor Henderson. 

Course of Study — Professors Clement, Fox and 
Goodwin. 

Literary and Social Affairs — Professors Hen- 
derson, Aldrich and Chrisman, Miss 
Poe, and Mr. Con-swell. 



University of Idaho, ) 

Office of the Board of Regents, > 

December 31, 1896. ) 

To His Excellency^ the Governor of the State of 
Idaho. 

Sir — In accordance with the law, I have the 
honor to present herewith the Seventh Annual Re- 
port of the Board of Regents of the University of 
Idaho, for the year ending- December 31, 1896, in- 
cluding- also the report for the year ending- Decem- 
ber 31, 1895. 

Respectfully Submitted, 

Sherman M. Coffin, President. 



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ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

President of the Board of Regents 

. . . .OF THE .... 

UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO. 

To His Excellency, the Governor of the State of 
Idaho. 

Section 7 of an Act, entitled, "an Act to estab- 
lish the University of Idaho," provides as follows: 

"At the close of each fiscal year, the Reg*ents 
throug'h their President, shall make a report in 
detail to the Governor, exhibiting- the prog*ress, 
conditions and wants of the University, the course 
of studies, the number of professors and students, 
the amount of receipts and disbursements, to- 
gether with the nature, costs and results of all im- 
portant investig-ations and experiments, and such 
other information as they may deem important." 

Section 17, Article 4, of the Constitution of 
the State of Idaho, provides: 

"An account shall be kept by the officers of the 
Executive Department and of all public institu- 



(2) 

tions of the State, of all moneys received by them 
severally, from all sources, and for every service 
performed, and of all moneys disbursed by them 
severally, and a semi-annual report thereof shall 
be made to the Governor, under oath; they shall 
also, at least twenty (20) days preceding- each reg-- 
ular session of the Legfislature, make full and com- 
plete reports of their official transactions, to the 
Governor, who shall transmit the same to the Leg-- 
islature." 

In accordance with these provisions of the law 
I have the honor, as President of the Board of Re- 
gfents of the University of Idaho, and on behalf of 
that corporation, to report to you, and through 
you, to the Iveg'islature of the State of Idaho, how 
the important trust, fiducial and scholastic, com- 
mitted to our hands has been administered. The 
sections of the law quoted above are very explicit 
as to what shall constitute the essential parts of a 
report of this character. The University of Idaho, 
in the short space of four years, has g-rown to such 
proportions as a state institution that any attempt 
upon my part to g'ive, with any deg-ree of particu- 
larit}^ the financial operations of the Board of Re- 
g-ents and the scholastic condition and needs of the 
institution, would make a report far too voluminous 
to subserve public interest. Even if I content my- 
self with a discussion of the salient points of the 
administration of the affairs of the University for 
the past two years, I fear even then I shall tres- 
pass upon the patience of those whose official duties 
and devotion to public affairs constrain them to 
read this report. 

The University of Idaho was chartered by an 
Act of Leg-islature a])proved January 30, 1889. 



(3) 

The Act also appropriated the sum of $15,000, 
**which money shall be expended for the following- 
purposes, to-wit:" 

First. The purchase of a site or g-rounds for 
said University, said location to consist of not less 
than ten nor more than twenty acres of g-round, 
and for the improvement of the same, and for keep- 
ing- the same in repair. 

Second. To advertise for and obtain plans 
and specifications for a University building- under 
such rules and reg-ulations as the Board may im- 
pose. 

Third. Por the payment of necessary ex- 
penses of said Board, as hereinafter provided." 

This sum was duly expended in accordance 
with the provisions of the law, and has been pro- 
perly accounted for by our predecessors. This 
was desig-nated at the time and has since been 
known as the Orig-inal Fund. 

Section 18 of the Act or Charter creating- the 
University of Idaho, provides: 

"There fdiall be levied and collected annually 
a state tax of or-e-half (^J) of a mill for each dollar 
of the assessed valuation of taxable property of the 
State of Idaho, which amount, when so levied and 
collected shall be appropriated to a University 
Building- Fund," to be expended under such re- 
strictions as the Act imposes. This tax was for a 
period of four years from the date of the passag-e of 
the Act, January 30, 1889. 

The first session of the State Leg-islature, in 
an Act approved February 12, 1891, increased the 
tax to three-quarters (|) of a mill, extended the 
period during which this tax should be levied four 



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years from that date. The second Legfislature 
amended the law to the effect that a tax of three- 
quarters (I) of a mill should be levied and collected 
for the years 1893, 1894 and 1895, and also provided 
that, "if the Board of Reg-ents shall at any time 
decide that the interests of the University require 
the completion of the building* more rapidly than 
the taxes provided in this Act, or the Act of which 
this is amendatory, are received, the Board of Re- 
g-ents may anticipate the receipt of the State taxes 
by issuing- warrants to the contractors for the 
erection of the building's, bearing- interest at not 
more than six (6) per cent per annum, payable out 
of the first money received from said taxes, said 
warrants shall be a charg-e upon said taxes only 
and not a charg-e ag-ainst the State." This amen- 
datory Act was approved February 24, 1893. All 
the moneys derived from this tax prior to the pro- 
visions of the amendatory Act of February 24, 1893, 
were classed under what our predecessors called the 
Orig'inal Building- Fund, and the moneys derived 
from the annual levy for 1893, 1894 and 1895, were 
desig-nated by our predecessors as the Tax Build- 
ing- Fund. The reason why this desig-nation was 
made is because of the difference in the provisions 
for the expenditures of these funds. Under the 
law, what we desig-nate the Orig-inal Building- 
Fund, could be expended only as collected, where- 
as, under the amendment of February 24, 1893, the 
Board of Rcg-ents was g-iven the power to "antici- 
pate the receipt of said taxes by issuing' warrants," 
as specified in so much of the Act as has been 
quoted above. The University received from the 
State on account of the Orig-inal Building- Fund, 
the sum of $51,000.30. The University received 



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from the State on account of the Tax Building 
Fund, the sum of $55,722.50. 

The doors of the institution were opened on the 
3d day of October, 1892. When the Board of Re- 
g-eats, appointed by your Excellency, February, 
1893, met to organize, of which Board the writer 
and Dr. Shaff, members of the present Board, were 
newly appointed members, we found over 100 
students in attendance upon the University, for 
whom the accommodations, both material and 
scholastic, were wholly inadequate. The number 
of teachers then employed was insufficient to meet 
the valid demands of that bod}^ of students. To 
employ more teachers necessitated an increase of 
room. That Board took steps at once to complete 
the building and thereby provide for the urgent 
necessities of the young institution. After the 
most careful estimates of the taxes that the 
assessed valuation of the State would }ield, and 
making liberal allowances for any possible shrink- 
age in the assessed valuation, and for delinquency 
in collection, it was supposed that the Board of 
Regents would have at their disposal a sum amply 
sufficient to complete the entire building. But 
baing desirous of not creating any deficiency for the 
State or for the University to carry, it .was deemed 
advisable by the Board, acting under the most con- 
servative judgment of all its members, not to 
attempt to complete the entire structure, but to 
inclose the building and complete only so much of 
the Interior as seemed likely to meet the immediate 
necessities of the institution. It was decided to 
finish the basement and first floor of the main por- 
tion, and the east wing of the building, which was 
done at a total cost of $71,431,35, (see p. 12, 5th 



(6) 

annual report). This policy was determined early 
in the spring- of 1893, and the contracts let in 
accordance therewith. It will be remembered that 
during- the summer and autumn of 1893, the panic 
which had been threatening- the country for some 
time, broke upon the countr}^ with a force the most 
sag-acious finariciers could not have anticipated. So 
disastrous was this panic, resulting* in such a 
shrinkag-e of values throug-hout the world, that 
Idaho has been compelled to bear its share of the 
calamity. The assessed valuation of the State has 
been so reduced, and the delinquency in the g-ather- 
ing- of taxes has been so increased, that even the 
very conservative estimates of the former Board 
of Reg-ents respecting- the building- revenues of the 
institution have not been realized, and there stands 
today ag-ainst the institution, building- warrants 
unredeemed to the amount of $24,776.06. But the 
Board of Reg-ents did not build too far into the 
future. Notwithstanding- the hard times that have 
prevailed, and do now prevail, there never has been 
a day since the new part of the building- was fin- 
ished when the institution had room enoug-h and 
accommodations sufficient to meet the ever increas- 
ing- attendance. There never have been chairs, 
desks, tables, cases, and other appurtenances 
sufficient to meet the demands, and the institution 
has been compelled to scrimp in every possible way, 
and has been put to its wits ends daily in order to 
meet the exig-enciesof the situation. 

FEDERAL AID. 

The wing- of the main building-, which the 
state was over three years in erecting-, would be 
standing- empty today, had not our predecessors 



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been ible to secure the munificent Federal Funds 
tendered the several states, "for the more complete 
endowment and support of the colleg^es and for the 
benefit of ag-riculture and the mechanic arts," es- 
tablished under the provision of an Act of Cong^ress 
approved July 2, 1862, and to "establish ag-ricultu- 
ral experiment stations in connection with the col- 
leges established in the several states, under the 
provisions of an Act approved July 2, 1862." The 
former is commonly known as the Morrill Fund, 
the latter as the Hatch Fund. Had the State 
attempted to conduct a school without this Federal 
aid, it is doubtful if the financial ability of the 
commonwealth upon the one hand, or if there was 
sufficient State pride in our University upon the 
other to have justified the legislature in 
appropriating- funds for the University that would 
have enabled it to maintain more than a prepara- 
tory school of low g-radc, or an indifferent 
academy. With the aid of these funds the Reg^ents 
hive maintained an institution that I feel war- 
ranted in claiming- is a source of pride to our young- 
commonwealth, a foundation of helpfulness to all 
who throng- its halls, and an inspiration to hun- 
dreds of young- men and women throug-hout our 
state, who are hastening- their preparation as rapidly 
as may be to enter upon its advantag-es at an early 
day. Not only has the University of Idaho com- 
mended itself to the confidence and admiration of 
our own people, but it ha^sbeen no less fortunate in 
commanding- the respect of the educational world, 
and has in the short space of four years won an 
honorable position among- the institutions of our 
sister states. Disting-uished visitors from Idaho 
and other states, the official representatives of the 



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departments at Washing-ton, and educators of emi- 
nence, have visited the institution and have ex- 
pressed the highest appreciation of its manag^ement, 
equipment and the quality of the work that is be- 
ing- accomplished. 

The Board of Reg-ents, therefore, in view of 
all the facts involved have no apolog-ies to offer for 
any sins of omission or commission, either upon the 
part of the present Board or of its predecessors. 
What has been done has been wisely done, with a 
view of subserving- the higfhest educational interests 
of our young- and prog-ressive State. No one can 
reg-ret more than we that the hard times of the 
past five years, have not only prevented the com- 
pletion of the entire building-, but unfortunately 
have prevented our realizing- sufficient revenues to 
liquidate the warrants outstanding-, issued to com- 
plete so much of the building- as is now in use. 
These are circumstances beyond the control of 
human calculation. That our predecessors builded 
more wisely than they knew is amply justified in 
the attendance, which, notwithstanding- the pre- 
vailing- hard times, has increased from year to 
year. 

AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT. 

Before entering- upon a further discussion of 
the financial and scholastic operations of the insti- 
tution, I desire to state at this point that the Uni- 
versity has been sing-ularly fortunate in its entire 
freedom from public scandal and internal dissen- 
sion. There never have been since the day the in- 
stitution was opened any dissensions between the 
Board of Reg-en ts and the Facult}^ or between the 
Faculty of the University and the student body. 



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The spirit of the institution is excellent in every 
respect. The students cheerfully comply with the 
regfulations of the Faculty; the discipline is mild, 
but firm as well as efficient. The President has 
always had the confidence of the Board of Regents, 
and has from time to time fully advised the Board 
of the condition and needs of the University, mak- 
ing" such recommendations as his experience or 
observations prompted, thereby keeping the Board 
fully informed as to the practical operations of the 
school and what was necessary in order to sub-, 
serve its highest interests. Upon the other hand, 
the Board has always found these representations 
reliable, and has been enabled thereby to legislate 
for the institution intelligently and effectively. 

While many educational, as well as other pub- 
lic institutions, have been racked and torn by dis- 
cord and enmities, necessitating investigations and 
drastic measures of various sorts, the University of 
Idaho stands today without taint or tarnish upon 
its escutcheon. 

THE BOOKS. 

Soon after the present Board of Regents suc- 
ceeded to the management of the institution it be- 
came apparant that the manner of keeping the 
books of the University was not adequate to the 
volume of business to be transacted, nor in accor- 
dance with the reports that had to be sent to the 
Department of the Interior, and the Department of 
Agriculture of the Federal Government. At about 
the same time the departments at Washington 
changed the forms of the reports which we were 
required to submit thereto, necessitating the use of 
blanks for which the books then kept did not fur- 



(10) 

nish adequate data. In our report upon the Mor- 
rill Fund, we are required to keep seven different 
schedules, with three items to the schedule, and to 
g-ive in detail the purchases made, the price and 
number of each, and to place it under its proper 
schedule. In the Hatch report we are required to 
keep eig"hteen schedules, each with two or 
more sub-divisions. In the earlier disbursements 
of the Federal Funds, the warrants had been drawn 
indiscriminately upon the Morrill and Hatch ap- 
.propriations. After the forms for the first reports 
had been received it was apparent that a seg*reg"a- 
tion had to be made. When the President of the 
institution came to make up his reports, as requir- 
ed by law, he found it impossible to make a relia- 
ble report from the books as they existed, and 
therefore took the warrant stubs, the warrants and 
the vouchers, and made such a seg'reg'ation as the 
ruling-s of the several departments required, and 
submitted his report according-ly. This was done 
for three years in succession. It was found by 
your Board that the reports which had been sent 
to Washing-ton did not agree with the books as 
kept by the Secretary of the Board of Regents, 
and by the Treasurer of the Board, and that this 
disagreement was increasing from year to 3^ear, 
that unless the books of these three officers were 
made to agree with each other at an early date, it 
might be practically impossible ever to get a report 
that would be entirely reliable. 

The Executive Committee secured two book- 
keepers to go through the records and the books of 
the various offices and make a statement to the 
Board. During the summer of 1895, these ac- 
countants, together with Secretary Green, Vice- 



(11) 

President Kaufmanii, of the Board ; Treasurer 
Browne, and President Gault, of the University, 
checked over the accounting-, the books of the 
Secretary, Treasurer, President Gault, and 
the warrants, vouchers, stub books, minutes 
of the Board of Regfents, and the minutes of 
the Executive Committee. After the most 
searching- examination into all of these records, the 
books of these three offices were broug-ht to a per- 
fect ag-reement, and the accounting- was found to 
be absolutely correct. It is a pleasure to report 
that our predecessors had used the utmost dili- 
g-ence in the preservation and conservation of the 
funds placed in their hands, that every cent was 
accounted for, and the lack of ag-reement among- 
the several records was more apparent than real. 
As a result of this auditing- of the books, a warrant 
reg-ister, which, up to that time had never been 
kept, was made up and completed, which shows 
upon its record every warrant from the first to the 
last one issued, its number, its face, the fund upon 
which drawn and the purpose for which drawn. 
There have been issued since May 17, 1889, 2,986 
warrants. Of these 194 are known as the "First 
Series;" 1,300 are known as the "New Series," 
and 1,492 are known as "Series A." These war- 
rants, with the vouchers attached, properly classi- 
fied, are on file in the fire proof vault of the Uni- 
versity, and are subject to public or official inspec- 
tion at any time. 

DISBURSEMENT OF FUNDS. 

The funds of the institution are disbursed in 
the following- manner: 

First. Before the close of the scholastic year 



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and prior to the annual meeting* of the Board of 
Regents in June, the President of the University 
receives from the heads of the various departments 
an estimate of the funds that will be required for 
the purchase of additional furniture, apparatus and 
equipments. These are all compiled, apportioned 
to the various funds which may be drawn upon for 
the purpose stated, and together with the salary 
accounts of each department, are submitted, with 
such recommendations as the President of the in- 
stitution sees fit, to the Board of Reg^ents for their 
consideration. The Board then has a complete 
map or chart of the proposed expenditures for the 
ensuing- year and the funds upon which these ex- 
penditures are to be a charg-e. The Board is thus 
enabled to see whether the income of the institution, 
furnished by these several funds, will be sufficient 
to justify the approval of these estimates as sub- 
mitted, and if insufficient, such modifications are 
made as in the wisdom of the Board seems best. 
By thus placing- each department upon a definite 
allowance the Board is enabled to live within its 
income, can treat each department with due consid- 
eration, and make such provisions for the future 
conduct of the institution as the necessities require 
and the limitations aiford. 

Second. After these estimates have been 
passed upon by the Board of Reg-ents, the Presi- 
dent of the institution is informed of the action of 
the Reg-ents, who, in turn informs the heads of the 
various departments of the moneys that have been 
set apart for the use of each department, and the 
funds from which these moneys may be derived. 
Some departments are permitted to draw support 
for salary and equipment from three funds; from 



(13) 

the State or Maintenance Fund, from the Morrill 
Fund and from the Hatch Fund. Some only from 
one fund, for instance, Lang-uag^es, which is a 
proper charg*e only upon the Maintenance or State 
Fund; others ag^ain only from the Morrill Fund, 
and others from both Morrill and Hatch Funds. 
The head of the department thus knows in advance 
how much money is at the disposal of his depart- 
ment, and that he will not be permitted under any 
circumstances to overdraw that amount, for to do 
so would be treating- departments unfairly, and at 
the same time render it absolutely certain that the 
institution could not keep within its income. This 
plan g-ives certainty and definiteness to the head of 
each department in his plans for the year. 

Third. Having- been officially notified of the 
budg-et set apart for the several departments, the 
heads of the departments then draw requisitions 
from time to time upon the Executive Committee 
for such equipment as in their judg-ment is neces- 
sary for the efficient conduct of the departments 
committed to their charg-e. These requisitions, 
when approved by the President of the University, 
are considered by the Executive Committee, and 
the purchases made in accordance therewith, if 
they commend themselves to the judgment of the 
Executive Committee. It has always been as- 
sumed by the Executive Committee that the head 
of the department is a better judg-e of what is 
needed in that department, the styles of apparatus 
required, and the prices to be paid for the same, 
than are the members of the Executive Committee, 
and the recommendations accompanying- the same 
are treated with the utmost consideration. The 
various professors secure close discounts, usually 



(14) 

submitting' order lists to various firms for their 
very best terms, thus saving* the institution every 
year a g-reat amount of money. The Reg-ents 
alwa^^s pay cash for all purchases made, and thus 
have established with all dealers in instruments, 
apparatus and other scientific supplies, a g'ilt edg^e 
credit for promptness in business, and in this way 
we have been able to secure additional discounts 
and the fairest treatment with our dealers at home 
and abroad. The Board of Reg'ents does not hesi- 
tate to asert, without fear of successful contradic- 
tion, that the purchases made by the University of 
Idaho could not have been made for less money or 
with g-reater intellig-ence and business thrift than 
have been exercised. 

Fourth. The invoices for all purchases made 
are submitted to the President of the institution 
and by him referred to the heads of the departments, 
by whom the goods as delivered are carefully 
checked and if found in satisfactory condition, and 
the prices and discounts in accordance with the 
ag^reements had, are approved and sig-ned by the 
heads of the departments and returned to the 
President. 

Fifth. These invoices and bills are examined 
by him, and the charg-e placed upon the proper 
department, and also upon the proper fund. Thus 
a bill or invoice of g-oods may be charg-ed up to the 
Morrill Fund or to the Hatch Fund, and in some 
instances to both funds, and also may be placed 
upon the Department of Chemistry or Ag-riculture, 
or whatever department orig-inated the requisitions. 
The Executive Committee thus never audits a bill 
until it has been passed upon by the head of the 



(15) 

department where the bill or purchase belong-s, 
whose requisition is before the committee, and 
unless the bill has been approved by the President 
of the Faculty and bears upon it the fund or funds 
for which a warrant should be drawn. The Presi- 
dent of the institution therefore has to keep a 
complete set of books, maintaining- an account with 
each department of the University, charg^ing" each 
department with every bill or invoice, which he 
approves and transmits to the Executive Com- 
mittee. 

Sixth. The Executive Committee audits these 
bills thus approved by the heads of departments 
and by the President of the University, and draws 
warrants for the payment of the same, keeping* a 
record of the meeting", of the business transacted 
and the bills allowed. This report is afterwards 
examined by the Board of Reg^ents in reg"ular ses- 
sion, and when approved becomes a part of the 
record of the Board of Reg^ents. 

Si^vENTH. The warrants, after being- drawn 
and properly signed, bearing* upon their face the 
distribution to the various funds of the University, 
are entered upon what is known as a warrant reg-- 
ister, giving the number of the warrant, the date 
when issued, the date of return by the Treasurer, 
the gross amount of the warrant, and the fund or 
funds to which the amount in g-ross is apportioned, 
and in whose favor the warrant is drawn. This 
warrant reg-ister, which was made in connection 
with the auditing- of the books heretofore explained, 
contains the reg-istration with the data as above, of 
every warrant drawn by the Board of Reg-ents in 
the name of the University of Idaho. 



(16) 

E^IGHTH. No warrant Is paid by the Treasurer 
of the Board of Reg"ents unless the voucher accom- 
panies the same; this is a standing* rule of the 
Board and of the Treasurer, from which no excep- 
tion is or can be made. All warrants after being" 
paid by the Treasurer are returned to the Secre- 
tary of the Board of Reg'ents within thirty (30) 
days, and the date of return is entered in the war- 
rant reg*ister, and are then filed in the fire proof 
vault in the University building*. Every warrant 
that has ever been issued will be found in that 
vault. 

Ninth. The books of the Treasurer of the 
University, of the Secretary of the Board of 
Reg"ents, and of the President of the institution are 
balanced at the end of the fiscal year, June 30th, 
and the accounting* of each officer checked ag*ainst 
the others, and when found to ag*ree we feel that 
our work is correct, beyond all peradventure of 
doubts. 

I have taken the time to set forth at this 
leng*th our methods of transacting* business so that 
the people of the state may understand the system 
of checks the Board has, the business sag*acity of 
its officers, their integ*rity and their accuracy in 
accounting* the funds that are submitted to their 
action. 

FUNDS. 

Former reports from the Board of Reg*ents 
have taken into consideration the following* funds: 

1. OriginaIv Fund. 

2. The Original Buii^ding Fund. 

3. Tax Buii^ding Fund. 

4. State Endowment Fund, (Principal.) 



(17) 

5. State Endowment Fund, (Interest.) 

6. Regents Expense Fund. 

7. The Maintenance Fund. 

1. Originae Fund — As heretofore explained, 
the Orlg^inal Fund was created by the Leg'islative 
Act of January 30, 1889, establishing- the Univer- 
sit} of Idaho. A sligfht balance was closed out, 
as explained on pag-e 7, of the Fifth Annual Re- 
port, into the State Endowment Interest Fund. 

2. The Original Building Fund — This is 
the fund derived from a direct tax of three- 
quarters (I) of a mill under an Act of the Leg-isla- 
ture, approved February 12, 1891. 

3. Tax Building Fund — This is the fund 
created under the provisions of an Act entitled 
"an Act to amend an Act to establish the Univer- 
sity of Idaho," approved February 24, 1893, pro- 
viding- for an annual levy of three-quarters (|) of a 
mill for each dollar of taxable property, to be 
levied and collected annually for the years 1893, 
1894 and 1895. 

Balane on hand last report, (p. 9, 5th, 

Annual Report) $ 4,614 57 

Received during- the Biennial Period. . . 31,667 77— $36,282 34 
Paid warrants and interest 31,038 72 

Balance $ 5,243 62 

4. State Endowment Fund, (Principal) — 
This fund is derived from the sale of lands. The 
land grant of the University is 50.000 acres. Of 
this land a few acres were sold a number of years 
ag-o. The fund now amounts to $5589.26. 

5. State Endowment Fund, (Interest) — 
This is a fund accruing- from the investment of 
the State Endowment Fund as above. The inter- 



(18) 

est thus derived under the terms of the g*rant made 
b}^ the Federal Government may be used for g'en- 
eral maintenance expenses. The Board of Pe^ents 
does not continue this as a separate fund but carries 
it directl}^ into what is known as the Maintenance 
Fund, althoug-h a strict account is kept of the 
interest receipts as well as every other source of 
income of this State or Maintenace Fund. 

6. Regents Expense Fund — 

Amount apportioned for the Biennial Period $2000 00 

Paid to date 91130 

Balance to credit $1088 70 

This fund was created by the Appropriation 
Bill of the last session of the Leg^islature, but 
remains in the treasury of the State of Idaho. 
The Board of Reg^ents certify their claims for 
expenses in attending- meeting's of the Board to the 
Board of Examiners of the State, and the warrants 
are paid the same as other state expenses. 

7. The Maintenance Fund — The Leg-is- 
lature at the Third Session made an appropriation 
for the State University in the following* lang-uag^e: 
"For the University of Idaho to reimburse the 
Morrill Fund for an expenditure erroneousl}' 
charg-ed to said fund, and for g*eneral maintenance 
and support, the sum of $16,230." This fund has 
been desig-nated by the Board of Reg^ents, the 
Maintenance Fund. In addition to this direct 
appropriation by the Leg^islature, the Maintenance 
Fund is increased by the tuition fees, breakag^e fees 
collected in the laboratories of the University, the 
assay fees that have been collected by the Depart- 
ment of Mining-, the interest on the State Endow- 
ment Fund, and other sources. 



(19) 

INTEREST. 

The Maintenance Fund has been aug-mented 
by rebates in freig-ht and from various other 
sources. 

State or Maintenance, (how disbursed) — 
It will take far too much space to give every item 
disbursed from this fund and the history of every 
transaction, and I doubt whether the expense of 
reproducing- the warrant reg^ister covering- the 
1,492 warrants issued by this Board during- the 
biennial period would be justifiable. I propose, 
however, to explain briefly the principal expendi- 
tures that have been charg-ed to the Maintenance 
Fund. At the time of the passag-e of the Act of 
the Leg*islature appropriating- the fund for g-eneral 
maintenance and support, The Bureau of Education, 
Department of the Interior, at Washing-ton, had 
disallowed the sum of $5,410, as not being- proper 
charg-es upon the Morrill Fund, although the ex- 
penditures were necessary to the continuance of 
the Universit\\ It was expected at that time that 
the state would have to reimburse the Morrill 
Fund to the amount of $5,410, or the g-overnment 
would refuse to g-rant the next year's appropria- 
tion to the State of Idaho. By submitting a care- 
fully drav/n statement explaining- the intention of 
the Board of Reg-ents, the Bureau of Education at 
Washing-ton permitted the Reg-ents to make a 
transfer of SI-,000 as between the Morrill and 
Hatch Funds, thereb}^ actually disallowing- but 
$1,410, the amount that had been paid the Profes- 
sors of Ancient and Modern Lang-uag-es on salary 
account prior to June 30, 189 4-. Since that time 
we have been very careful not to place any charg-e 
upon the Morrill Fund that was not authorized by 



(20) 

the terms of the Act, or by the ruling-s under the 
Act. In one or two instances, however, the 
g^overnment has disapproved of our accounting-, 
and we have been compelled to reimburse the 
Morrill Fund from the Maintenance Fund. Some 
expenses incurred in connection with the Military 
Department w^e supposed were properly chargfeable 
to the Morrill Fund, but the same were rejected. 
It w^as also supposed by the Reg^ents that the pay 
of Assistant Librarians who were placed in charg-e 
of the Library, at nominal salaries, could be paid 
out of the Morrill Fund, but this w^as disallowed. 
While w^e have found the Department of the Interior 
very close and firm in its ruling-s respecting- the ac- 
counting- of the Morrill Fund, we have also found 
the Department very considerate, and our corres- 
pondence in adjusting- the accounting- has always 
been uniformly courteous, nevertheless, the policy of 
the Bureau of Education having- in charg-e the 
accounting- of the Morrill Fund is inexorable. It 
must be remembered in explaining- our use of the 
state appropriation that this $1,410 was incurred by 
the University prior to June 30, 1894, almost a year 
before the appropriation was passed by the Legfis- 
lature, wdiich Act was approved March 9, 1895. 
We have had to pay in addition to this all the 
g-eneral and support charg-es for the scholastic 
year ending- June 30, 1895, and for the year ending- 
June 30, 1896, and since June 30, 1896, out of this 
fund. It was not intended by the Leg-islature 
when the appropriation was passed that the 
maintenance expenses of the University should be 
met by this appropriation for the fie^cal year ending- 
June 30, 1897. The Committee on Ways and 
Means when passing" upon this appropriation. 



(21) 

refused to take the fiscal year ending June 31, 1897, 
into the account, claiming' that inasmuch as a Leg"- 
islature would assemble prior to the close of the 
fiscal year ending- June 30, 1897, the operating- ex- 
penses of the University for the current fiscal year 
of the g-overnment should be provided for by the 
Fourth Biennial Session of the Leg-islature. Fol- 
lowing* are some of the principal items to which 
the fund has been applied: 

LANGUAGES — (, ANCIENT AND MODERN.) 

Under no circumstances whatever will the 
Bureau of Education permit the payment of 
Teachers or Professors in Ancient and Modern 
Lang-uag-es from the Morrill Fund. 

INSURANCE. 

The policy of the Board of Reg-ents has always 
been to keep the University building- well insured. 
Since March 9, 1895, the sum of $1184 has been 
paid in premiums for insurance, which runs until 
1898 and 1899. 

EIRE PROTECTION. 
During- the summer of 1895, a stand pipe with 
an abundant supply of hose had been placed iu the 
building-, connected directly with the city mains. 
It was found that the supply pipe furnishing- water 
to the University building- was not sufficient to 
furnish an adequate water supply in case of fire. 
The water supply for fire protection is furnished 
by a service pipe of its own. By this means we 
secure a pressure of forty-five (45j pounds to the 
square inch, with an abundance of water. The 
Military Department is org-anized into a fire com- 
pany with the requisite accompaniment of hose 



(22) 

men, spanners, salvag-e crews, etc., and are g-iven 
reofular fire drills, so that in case of fire, when any 
of the cadets are about the buildinsf, the hose reels 
will be manned by those who are thoroug-hly 
drilled in fig-hting* fire. 

JANITOR SERVICE. 

The Janitor, and all necessary supplies for 
sweeping- and dusting- and scrubbing-, tog-ether with 
the necessary fuel, lig-ht and water, must be sup- 
plied by the state. The Department of the Interior 
will not permit any such charg-es upon the Morrill 
Fund. 

FUEL. 

After careful experimentation upon the part of 
the Janitor and Fireman, we find that we can heat 
the University building- mtich more cheaply by the 
use of wood than by coal. T^ast year we purchased 
wood as low as Si. 94 per cord. At this rate it 
cost $400 to heat the building- during- the fiscal 
year. This year fuel cost us S2.30 per cord. 

LIGHT. 

The University has its own metre by which all 
electricity received from the city electric plant is 
measured, the contract being- twenty (20) cents per 
1,000 watts, or at the rate of one (1) cent for one 
(1) hour for sixteen (16) candles. 

FURNITURE. 

Some furniture has been purchased during- the 
biennial period, but not nearly so much as the 
institution oug-ht to possess. Some cases and 
tables have been constructed, but in every instance 
only the material was purchased, the tables or 



(23) 

cases beino- made by the Janitor during' the summer 
vacation or b\^ the professors themselves. Feeling 
too poor to make the necessary cases for scientific 
experiments and the tables for demonstration, we 
have requested the Janitor, who by the way is an 
excellent carpenter, to make these for the several 
departments from the material provided by the 
University, or we have told the professor that if he 
would make such cases, tables or shelves as he 
needed we would furnish the necessary material. 
We have been compelled in the interest of economy 
to be much more illiberal about these matters than 
we could have desired. But upon the other hand 
the professors have very readily accepted the situ- 
ation and as readily have adjusted themselves to 
circumstances, and have shown that they were 
quite as skillful m using" their hands in the manu- 
facture of demonstrators' tables as they have been 
in imparting instruction over such tables. In this 
way tables and cases that were absolutely neces- 
sary, but would have cost the University largfe 
sums of money, have been constructed at a nominal 
cost. It would not have been possible to have con- 
ducted the institution during* these two years as 
efficiently as it has been conducted without provid- 
ing- furniture, cases and tables, nor would it have 
been possible to have provided these for less money 
than has been done under our manag-ement. 

WINDOW CURTAINS. 

For nearly four years the University building" 
was occupied, during- the g-lare of the summer's 
sun and the reflection from winter's snow, without 
a curtain upon the University building-. This was 
a positive injury to the eyes of the professors and 



(24) 

students. During- last year we purchased and 
hung fifty (50) curtains upon the windows that are 
most exposed to the light. About one-half of the 
windows, those upon the north side of the building, 
are as yet not provided with curtains. 

REPAIRS. 

It is inevitable that a building as large as the 
University building will get out of repair. All 
repairs of furniture, of doors, windows, etc., have 
been made by the Janitor. Repairs upon the 
plumbing and roof have been made by skilled 
mechanics. The Board and management have felt 
that it was better economy to keep the building in 
good repair than to let it run down. In these 
matters, while we have felt the necessity of the 
most rigid economy, who have felt that it was 
our duty to use the same judgment in public busi- 
ness that any of us would use in our private busi- 
ness by proceeding upon the adage that "a stitch 
in time saves nine." 

STAIR TREADS. 
Last year we found that the treads upon the 
stairways were wearing out very rapidly, 
and in the course of a year or two would be so 
worn that it would be necessary to rebuild all of 
the stairways, which would prove very expensive 
indeed. Accordingly we purchased rubber matting 
and placed it upon the treads with a brass nosing 
to protect the edge of each tread. Before the 
opening of the current school year the floors of the 
corridors were oiled, as we found that these floors 
were wearing rough and would soon have to be 
relaid unless x^rotected. After thoroughly oiling 
the floors we find that they are wearing smooth, 



(25) 

the surface has been hardened, and the money thus 
expended was in the interest of true economy. 
Other repairs of a similar character we have made, 
but I do not deem it advisable to extend this 
explanator}^ list. 

DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC. 

During- the last two years we have paid the 
Director of Music the nominal salary of $300 a year 
for his services in connection with the exercises of 
the University. He directs the music at the 
iVssembly or Chapel exercises and upon all public 
occasions, and has org-anized various musical 
societies, chorus clubs and g-lee clubs, drilling- the 
same, all of which have added materially to the 
interest in student life, to the culture and refine- 
ment of the student body and to the success of the 
institution. 

PIANO. 

The first year of the University a small org-an 
w^as borrowed and used in connection with the 
sing-ing at the Chapel exercises. The second and 
third years pianos were rented and paid for by the 
students in five cent contributions. The fourth 
year the Regents felt that it was due the dig-nity of 
of the institution and the student body that a piano 
should be provided. An excellent uprig-ht piano, 
being- listed at $1,000, was purchased under a 
special arrangement, at a price that was almost 
nominal. 

In addition to these expenditures thus listed 
we have paid the freight upon military and 
ordinance stores, published our recent catalog-ue, 
paid the expenses incident to the commencement, 
and made such other provisions for the protection 



(26) 

of the builditio", for the comfort of the student 
body and for facilitating- the scholastic work of the 
University as seemed to the Board of Reg^ents to 
be indispensably necessary. Not only has a wise 
discretion been exercised, but in every instance the 
most rig-id economy has been practiced. It would 
take too long- in a report of this character, or even 
to a visiting committee of the Legislature, to give 
in detail all the petty economies that we have felt 
called upon to practice in order that we might 
administer the affairs of the University in accor- 
dance with an enlightened policy, and at the same 
time not entail upon the taxpayers of this state a 
farthing more than absolutely necessary to attain 
the ends and aims of our University. Our receipts 
on account of the Maintenance Fund from all 
sources have been $18,155.70. 

Our expenditurs to date have been $20,504.53, 
thus leaving a deficiency to date of $2,348.83. It 
is with sincere reg'ret that we have to show a balance 
in the Maintenance Fund upon the wrong side of 
the account, but I feel assured that a careful read- 
ing of this report, and especially of that portion 
referring to the Maintenance Fund, will in the 
mind of every reasonable person, be an ample ex- 
planation for this overdraft. As before stated, it 
was not contemplated that the appropriation passed 
in March, 1895, would be able to carry the institu- 
tion beyond the close of the scholastic year in June, 
1896. Thus no provision was made for general 
maintenance or operating- expenses during the 
current scholastic year, which expenses have been 
thrown upon the coming Legislature to meet. 
This overdraft is for charges that cannot be 
placed upon either the Morrill or the Hatch 



(27) 

Funds. The state itself must meet these inci- 
dental expenses and provide for the maintenance 
of departments that the g-overnment funds cannot 
be applied to, or the government will withdraw its 
funds from the state. When the Board met in June, 
18%, it was confronted with this condition. Our 
accounts with the g-overnment were straight and 
approved. We knew that we would receive in the 
following- July the Morrill Fund amounting- to 
S22,000, and that we would also receive the quar- 
terly payments of the Hatch Fund amviunting- to 
$15,000. Under the ruling-s of the Department of 
Ag-riculture and the Department of the Interior we 
were not permitted to place these charg-es for 
general support and maintenance, even temporarily, 
upon the Morrrill or the Hatch Funds, nor could 
we borrow from either of these funds. We are 
required by these departments to draw our war- 
rants upon these funds in such a way that the 
warrant stands as the final act of the Regents in 
the disbursement of these funds. Transferring 
from one fund to the other, or borrowing from one 
fund in favor of another without being covered by 
a warrant specifying the purpose for which drawn 
and accompanied by a proper voucher showing that 
it was a legitimate expenditure and a correct 
charge upon the government funds, will not be 
permitted by the Departments at Washington. 
The question with us was, being assured of these 
government funds for the use of the institution 
during the next fiscal year of the government, 
which of course covers the scholastic year of the 
University, should we close the institution, decline 
these funds simply because we had not at our com- 
mand the requisite amount of state funds to cover 



(28) 

these charg-es that could not leg^ally be placed upon 
the government funds. In other words, should the 
University close its doors and return the funds to 
the Federal Government simply because the 
Maintenance Fund provided by the State would be 
exhausted before the opening- of the scholastic 
year in September. The Treasurer of the Board 
of Regents volunteered to provide for this neces- 
sary overdraft. All the warrants that have been 
thus drawn in accordance with our schedule of dis- 
bursements adopted at the June meeting of the 
Board of Regents are now in the hands of the 
Treasurer of the Board of Regents, and are not 
circulating about the state to impair the credit of 
the University or of the State of Idaho. The 
Board of Regents felt that it dared not assume the 
responsibility of closing the doors of the institution 
against the young men and women of the state on 
account of a deficit of some S2,000 or $3,000, but 
made such arrangements as would enable the insti- 
tution to continue by issuing its warrants for thevse 
stated expenses upon the Maintenance Fund. The 
matter is thus submitted to the Governor of the 
State, to the Legislature and to the people of 
Idaho, as the only course that public or private 
opinion could approve. The Regents fully believe 
that all public institutions should live strictly 
within their income. The University of Idaho has 
always done this respecting its Federal Funds, 
and did respecting its State Fund, live strictly 
within its income until June 30th, 18%. Since that 
time there has been no provision of the state, as 
heretofore explained, for the maintenance and oper- 
ating expenses of the University of Idaho. 



(29) 

TFjE MORRILL FUND. 

The University of Idaho receives from the 
Federal Government, throug'h the Bureau of 
Education, Department of the Interior, an annual 
^rant of mone} , conferred by what is known as the 
Morrill, Act. For the year ending- June 30, 1895, 
we received §20,000, and for the year ending- June 
30, 1896, $21,000, and for the year ending- June 30, 
1897, 822,000. This fund is "to be applied only 
to instruction in ag-riculture and mechanic arts, 
the Eng-lish lang-uag-e and the various branches of 
mathematical, natural and economic science, with 
special reference to their applications in the 
industries of life and to the facilities for such 
instruction." The ruling- under this Act that is 
printed upon the report which we have to make to 
the Bureau of Education states: "It is held that 
this languag-e authorizes the purchase, from this 
money, of apparatus, machinery, text books, refer- 
ence books, stock and material used in instruction, 
or for purposes of illustration in connection with 
any of the branches enumerated, and the payment 
of salaries as instructors in said branches only." 
The erection of building-s is specifically prohibited 
by the Act, and the Assistant Attorney-General 
has decided that the purchase of land is not allowed. 
It should not be expended for repairs, furniture, 
cases, shelving, tableware, cooking- utensils or 
musical instruments. The salaries of instructors 
in ancient and modern lang-uag-es, except the Eng-- 
lish and pedag-og-ic, or for the salaries of 
treasurers, secretaries, bookkeepers, janitors, 
watchmen, etc. In short the plant, the land, the 
buildings and ordinary appliances of a school must 
be provided from other sources, and this particular 



(30) 

fund must be applied exclusively to the subjects 
named in the Act, and facilities especially required 
for these subjects. In an opinion of the Assistant 
Attorney-General of the United States, rendered 
March 7, 1894, the principal is made emphatic 
"that the lang-uag^e of the Act is restrictive, and 
the fund is to be used in the direct line of instruc- 
tion." 

In all our correspondence v^ith the Bureau of 
E^ducation v^e are advised that the lang-uag^e of the 
Act is restrictive and prohibitive of all expendi- 
tures not plainly specified in the Act itself. 
Nothing- can be implied. The Board of Reg^ents 
has no discretion in the matter, nor can the State 
of Idaho exercise any control over the disbursement 
of these funds not consistent with the express 
provisions of the Act. 

On July 1, 1894, the date of the receipt of the 
installment for 1894-1895, there was left unex- 
pended in the Morrill Fund, S92.69. During- the 
year ending- June 30, 1895, we reported to Wash- 
ing-ton the following- expenditures: 

Balance on hand, July 1, 1894 $ 1,502 69 

Appropriation for year ending June 30, '95. 20,000 00— $21,502 69 



Agriculture, as per Schedule A $1,314 



Mechanic Arts, 
English I^anguage, 
Mathematical Science, 
Nat. or Phys. Science, 
Economic Science, 



B 2,530 43 

C 4,128 96 

D 2,628 00 

E 6,376 70 

F 525 00 



Total expended during year — $17,503 87 



Balance unexpended $ 3,998 82 



(31) 

For the year ending- June 30, 18%, we reported 
as follows: 

Balance on hand, July 1, 1895 % 3,998 82 

Appropriation for year ending- June 30, '96. 21,000 00— $24,998 82 



B 4,469 92 

C 3,840 45 

D 2,017 60 

E 7,685 41 

F 1,850 00 



Agriculture, as per Schedule A $ 1.436 27 

Mechanic Arts, 
Eng-lish Ivang-uag-e, 
Mathematical Science, 
Nat. or Phj's. Science, 
Economic Science, 

Total expended during- year — S21,299 65 

Balance unexpended July 1, 1896 $ 3,699 17 

Under each of these schedules we were 
required to report with g^reat particularity the 
amounts paid for instruction, with the names of 
the instructors, the amounts for reference books, 
apparatus and other equipment, g-iving- the nature 
of the purchase and the price in every instance. It 
will be seen from the above statement that we 
had an unexpended balance July 1, 1895, of 
83,998.83, and on July 1, 1896, a surplus of 
S3, 699. 17. Under the ruling- of the Commissioner 
of Education, Department of the Interior, dated 
May 2, 1895, we are not permitted to accumulate 
a surplus of the Morrill money. "It was un- 
doubtedly the intention of Cong-ress that the funds 
provided by the above mentioned Act, should be 
expended annually, althoug-h unexpended balances 
have been allowed to be carried forward to the 
next year's account. I have always, when 
questioned concerning- this point, discourag-ed the 
accumulation of unexpended balances. It should 
not, of course, be the policy of an institution to 
expend the money needlessly simply to g-et rid of 
it." It is not leg-itimate to infer from this unex- 



(32) 

pended balance that the institution has more money 
than it can use. During* the first and second years 
of the history of the institution the Morrill Fund 
was consumed in meeting- the current necessities of 
the institution. During- the third year, under a 
more rig-id system of apportioning- the funds to the 
various departments, as has been explained hereto- 
fore, quite a balance was left unexpended. During- 
the current year, the schedule of disbursements 
that was adopted by the Board of Reg-ents at its 
June meeting-, on account of the increased number 
of instructors for the University, provides for such 
expenditures as will practically leave no unex- 
pended balance at the end of the current fiscal year, 
June 30, 1897. The Board has always felt that it 
was better to have the balance on the rig-ht side of 
the account, to have a surplus rather than a deficit. 
In making- up a schedule of proposed disburse- 
ments for the ensuing- year, it was advisable to 
fig-ure upon a surplus to meet emerg-encies in the 
way of extra teaching- force. It must be remem- 
bered that our people in Idaho are educating- their 
sous and daug-hters, not out of their abundance 
but out of their penury. Had the times continued 
during- the four years that the University has been 
operating- as they were at the time the institution 
was first opened, in 1892, the attendance would 
have been fully twice what it has been, and in that 
event, neither the room that the present building- 
affords nor the funds at the disposal of the 
Reg-ents would have been adequate to meet the 
demands upon the institution. As we have always 
hoped from spring- to fall and from fall to spring-, 
during- each succeeding- season, for an improvement 
of times, we have felt that we should be prepared 



(33) 

to increase our teaching- force at any time that the 
increase of students necessitated. 

Section 3 of the Act of Cong-ress of August 30, 
1890, commonly known as the Morrill Act, 
provides: 

"An annual report by the President of each of 
said colleg-es shall be made to the Secretary of 
Ag^riculture, as well as to the Secretary of the 
Interior, reg-arding- the Condition and Prog-ress 
of each colleg*e, including- Statistical Information in 
relation to its Receipts and ^Expenditures, its 
Library, the number of its Students and Pro- 
fessors, and also as to any Improvements and 
Experiments made under the direction of any Ex- 
periment Stations attached to said colleg-es, with 
their Costs and Results, and such other Industrial 
and Economical Statistic as may be reg-arded as 
useful, one copy of which shall be transmitted by 
mail free to all coUegfes further endowed under 
this Act." 

For the fiscal year ending* June 30, 1895, the 
President of the University submitted in accor- 
dance with the above provisions, the following- 
report: 

Report of the President of said institution to 
the Secretary of Ag-riculture and the Secretary of 
the Interior, as required by an Act of Cong-ress, of 
Aug-ust 30, 1890, in aid of Colleg-es of Ag-riculture 
and the Mechanic Arts. 

CONDITION AND PROGRESS OP THE INSTITUTION, 
YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1895. 

The year has been one of steady advancement. 

1. The requirements for admission have been 
raised. 

2. Preparation of students has been better. 

3. The student spirit has increased. 



(34; 

4. Increased attachment of the people for the 
institution. 

5. The completion of a larg-e portion of the 
main building* g'ave, for the first time, sufficient 
room. 

6. The students g"oing- out to teach have suc- 
ceeded admirably and won confidence for the insti- 
tution. 

7. The establishment of the Military 
Department under a U. S. Army officer has had a 
salutary influence. 

8. The g'rowing- interest in ag-ricultural 
studies necessitates increased facilities for that 
department. 

9. All the laboratory facilities have been 
increased. 

10. Students are now qualified for courses in 
Mechanic Arts. Course in bench work in wood 
will be added next year. 

11. The Leg'islature made an appropriation 
sufficient for operating- expenses. 

N. B. — Owing- to the addition of courses in 
Mechanic Arts, and Mining-, and the consequent 
modifications of existing- courses, the catalog-ue 
will not be issued for several months. (Copies 
will be submitted when published.) 

RECEIPTS FOR AND DURING THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1895. 
Balance on hand July 1, 1894. 
State aid — 

(a) Income from Endowment granted by state. .$ 687 95 

(b) Appropriation for current expenses 5,410 00 

Appropriation for current expenses, Regents 1,000 00 

(c) Appropriations for building or other special 

purposes 17,722 56 

Federal aid — 

(a) Income from land grant, Act of July 2, 1862 

(b) For experiment stations. Act of March 2. 

1887 15,000 00 

(c) Additional endowment, Act of August 30, '90 20,000 00 
Fees and all other sources 43 00 

Total $59,863 51 



(35) 

EXPENDITURES FOR AND DURING THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, '95. 

CoUeg-e of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts $17,650 88 

Experiment Station 15,000 00 

All other departments, if any, Ancient and Modern 

Lang-uag-es 2,000 00 

Total expenditures $34,650 88 

PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT, YEAR ENDED JUNE 

30, 1895. 

Value of all building-s, §121,000; of other 
equipment, $18,400. 

What portion of above (an estimate only is 
expected) is used by the Agricultural and Mechan- 
ical Departments? 

Building-s, $24,000; other equipment, $8,000. 
Total number of acres, 500; acres under cultiva- 
tion, 375; acres used for experiments, 50; value of 
farm lands, $16,000; amount of all endowment 
funds, $3,484.07. University proper, excluding 
buildings on Experiment Farms. 

IvIBRARY, YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1895. 

Number of bound volumes, June 30, 1894, 
2,000; pamphlets, 1,000. Bound volumes added 
during year ended June 30, 1895, 585; pamphlets, 
500. Total bound volumes, 2,585; pamphlets, 
1,500. 

FACUIvTY DURING THK YKAR KNDED JUNE 30, 1895. 

College of Ag-riculture and Mechanic Arts — Male. Female. 

(a) Preparatory classes 10 3 

(b) Colleg-iate and special classes 9 2 

(c) Total, counting- none twice 11 3 

Number in all other departments, (excluding" 

duplicates) 

Number of staff of Experiment Station . 7 

STUDENTS DURING THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1895. 

1. Colleg-e of Ag-riculture and Mechanic Arts — Male. Female- 
fa) Preparatary classes 117 74 

(b) CoUeg-iate and special classes. . . 20 9 

(c) Graduate courses 

Total, counting- none twice 137 83 



(36) 

2. Number in all other departments? 

3. Number of students that pursued courses 
in Agriculture, 15; Mechanical E^ng-ineering-, 4; 
E^lectric Eng'ineering", — ; Mining* Eng'ineering', — ; 
Architecture, — ; Household Economy, — ; Veteri- 
nary^ Science, — ; Military Tactics, 134. (It is not 
expected that these iig-ures will equal the number 
of students g-iven above.) 

4. What deg'rees and how many of each kind 
were conferred in 1894-5? 

On men, — ; on women, — . 

5. What and how many honorary members 
were conferred in 1894-5? 

Master of Literature, 1. 

Report of the President of said institution to 
the Secretary of Ag-riculture and the Secretary of 
the Interior, as required by Act of Cong-ress of 
Aug-ust 30, 1890, in aid of Colleg'es of Ag^riculture 
and Mechanic Arts. 

CONDITION AND PROGRESS OF THE INSTITUTION, 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1896, ESPECI- 

AIvLY INSTANCING. 

1. Course of methods of instruction. 

2. Purpose, structural character, and cost of 
new building-s or additions to building's. 

1. Courses of study that have been under con- 
sideration for two years were adopted and pub- 
lished in the Catalog-ue for 1896-7. The Colleg-e 
courses are now nine (9) in number. Greater 
emphasis is placed upon scientific instruction. 
Students may take four years in Agriculture, 
Chemistry, Botany, ^oolog-y, or Mathematics and 
Physics. A course in Mining- has been added. 



(37) 

Also a course of two years in Bench Work in 
Wood, including Wood Carving for ladies. One 
3'ear of the course in Bench Work in Wood is 
required for admission to the Freshman Class in 
any course. The first graduating- class received 
deg-rees June 11, 1896, the g-entlemen taking- 
deg*rees in B. C. E. The scientific equipment was 
larg-ely increased. There are now seven (7) labo- 
ratories — Ag-ricultural, Botanical, Chemical, 
Zoolog"ical, Engfineering, Mining" and Phys. — 
besides Draughting- rooms, Wood Working- shop 
and Free Hand Drawing-, all of which are 
thoroughly well supplied with apparatus and 
libraries, to which additions are being- constantly 
made. 

2. Annex for assaying-. A room with base- 
ment and annexes for Dairying*, well supplied with 
modern apparatus. Instruction will be g-iven next 
year. 

RECEIPTS FOR AND DURING THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1896. 

Balance on hand July 1, 1895, over and above all indebtedness 

(excluding funded debt, if any). 
State aid— 

(a) Income from Endowment granted by state. .$ 234 95 

(b) Appropriation for current expenses 5,410 00 

Appropriation for current expenses, Regents 1,000 00 

(c) Appropriations for building or other special 

purposes 14,587 77 

Federal aid — 

(a) Income from land grant. Act of July 2, 1862 

(b) For experiment stations. Act of March 2, 

1887 15,000 00 

(c) Additional endowment. Act of August 30, '90 20,000 00 
Fees and all other sources 257 25 

Total $56,489 97 

EXPENDITURES FOR AND DURING THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, '96. 

Instruction in subjects specified in Section 1, Act of 

August 30, 1890* $21,443 90 

Experiment Station 15,000 00 

Instruction in all other subjects, if any, not mention- 
ed in Question 1 of this series, Ancient and Mod- 
ern Languages, Pedagogy, Ethics. 2,350 00 

Total expenditures $38,793 90 



(38) 

*The answer to this question will include not 
only the amount received under the Act of Aug-ust 
30, 1890 (Morrill Act), but also all amounts that 
are expended for the subjects specified in that Act 
irrespective of the character of the funds the 
amounts may be drawn from (State, tuition fees, 
or endowment, etc). 

PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT, YEAR ENDED JUNE 
30, 18%. 

Value of building-s, $125,000; of other equip- 
ment, 825,000; value of above property (an estimate 
only is expected) not used for instruction in the 
subjects specified in Section 1 of the Act of August 
30, 1890; building-s, $5,000; of other equipment, 
$2,000. Total number of acres, 500; acres under 
cultivation, 375; acres used for experiments 50; 
value of farm lands, $10,000; amount of all Endow- 
ment Funds, $5,461.42. 

LIBRARY, YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1896. 

Number of bound volumes, June 30, 1895, 
2,585; pamphlets, 1,500. Bound volumes added 
during- the year ended June 30, 1896, 915; 
pamphlets, 8,000. Total bound volumes, 3,500; 
pamphlets, 9,500. 

Experiment Station Library, now counted 
Department of University Library. 

FACUI.TY DURING THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1896. 

Colleg-e of A^Ticulture and Mechanic Arts — Male. Female. 

(a) Preparatory classes 

(b) Gollegiate and special classes 

(c) Total, counting- none twice 13 3 

Number in all other departments (excepting- 

duplicates) 

Number of staff of Experiment Station 7 



(39) 

STUDENTS DURING THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1896. 

CoUeg-e of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts — Male. Female. 

(a) Preparatory classes 141 83 

(b) Colleg-iate and special classes 23 19 

(c) Post graduate courses 

Total, counting- none twice 164 102 

2. Number in all other departments. 

3. Number of students that pursued courses 
in Ag-riculture, 4; Mechanical Engineering-, — ; 
Civil Eng-ineering-, 8; Electric Eng-ineeringf, — ; 
Mining- Eng-ineering-, — ; Architecture, — ; House- 
hold Economy, — ; Veterinary Science, — ; Military 
Tactics, 164. (It is not expected that the sum of 
these fig-ures will equal the number of students 
g-iven above.) 

4. What deg-rees and how many of each kind 
were conferred in 1895-6? 

On men, 2, B. C. E.; on women, 1, A. B.; 1, 
Ph. B. 

5. What and hDw many honorary deg"rees 
were conferred in 1895-6? 

None. 

HATCH FUND. 

The objects of the Ag-riculture Experiment 
Station, established by provision of an Act of Con- 
g-ress, approved March 2, 1887, commonly known 
as the Hatch Act, entitled "an Act to establish 
Ag-ricultural Experiment Stations in connection 
with Colleg-es established in the several States, 
under the provisions of an Act approved July 2, 
1862, and of the Acts supplementary thereto," are 
defined in the second Section of the Act as follows: 

"That it shall be the object and duty of said 
experiment stations to conduct origfinal researches 



(40) 

or verify experiments on the physiolog^y of plants 
and animals; the diseases to which they are sever- 
ally subject, with the remedies for the same, the 
chemical compositions of useful plants at their 
different stag^es of g'rowth; the comparative advan- 
tages of rotative cropping- as pursued in a vary- 
ing- series of crops; the capacity of new plants or 
trees for acclimation, the analysis of soils and 
waters; the chemical composition of manures, 
natural or artificial, with experiments desig-ned to 
test their comparative effects on crops of different 
kinds; the adaptation and value of g-rasses and 
forag-e plants; the composition and dig-estibilit} of 
different kinds of food for domestic animals; the 
scientific and economic questions in the production 
of butter and cheese, and such researches or ex- 
periments, bearing- directly on the ag-ricultural 
industry of the United States, as may in each case 
be deemed advisable, having- due reg-ard to the 
varying- conditions and needs of the respective 
States and Territories." 

From this fund $15,000 payable in quarterly 
installments is derived. The system of accounting- 
enforced by the Department of Ag-riculture of the 
Federal g-overnment is more rig-id, and g-oes more 
fully into details than that of the Bureau of E^du- 
cation. Department of the Interior. While the lim- 
itations placed upon these two funds are of the 
most salutary character, and have in view only 
the conservation of these funds and their applica- 
tion to the particular objects specified in the 
respective Acts, nevertheless the Board of Reg-ents 
are thereby circumscribed in their discretionary 
power, in the expenditure of these moneys. For 
the Hatch Fund we are required to keep an 



(41) 

accounting* on blanks furnished us by the Depart- 
ment, for that purpose, a complete history of each 
expenditure, including- the face of the warrant 
drawn, in whose favor, and for what purpose. In 
order that the purpose may be clearly shown to 
the Department at Washing-ton we are required to 
keep eig-hteen separate abstracts, as will be seen 
in the accompanying- reports. Both of these Fed- 
eral Departments, by means of the ruling-s issued 
from time to time and the blank forms prescribed, 
upon which the reports should be made, as well as 
all official correspondence that passes between the 
President of the University and the respective 
departments, are throwing- additional safeg-uards 
about the use of these funds. While these limita- 
tions meet the hearty approval of the Board of 
Reg-ents, and we have always been careful to 
comply strictly therewith, I desire to emphasize 
this fact that it may be thoroug-hly understood 
that the Board of Reg-onts in the application of 
these funds, are simply the instruments in the 
hands of the General Government, by which the 
objects contemplated by the Morrill and the Hatch 
Acts shall be attained. We have no discretion in 
the matter at all, nor can the State of Idaho exer- 
cise any discretionary power as to how these funds 
shall be applied. While it is rig-ht that the g-ov- 
ernment should enforce its authority in these mat- 
ters and secure the ends for which the funds are 
appropriated, it must be apparant that the Board 
of Reg-ents must conform strictly to the require- 
ments imposed or the fund will be withdrawn 
from the state, and however desirable it may be 
for the Reg-ents to streng-then this department or 
that department, to make this provision or that 



(42) 

provision, it is powerless to do anything* not in 
consonance with the Federal Act. For the fiscal 
year ending- June 30, 1896, the Board of Regents 
submitted to the Department of Agriculture a 
report, of which the following is a true copy: 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

The Agricultural Experiment Station of the 
University of Idaho in account with the United 
States Appropriation. 

RECEIPTS. 

To receipts from the Treasurer of the United States 
as per appropriation for fiscal year ending- June 
30, 1895, as per Act of Congress approved March 
2, 1887 $15000 00 

To Warrants refunded 105 00 

Total receipts $15105 00 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

By Salaries, per Abstract 1 $ 5560 89 

By Labor, per Abstract 2 3469 94 

By Publications, per Abstract 3 711 60 

By Postage and Stationery, per Abstract 4 206 37 

By Freig-ht and Express, per Abstract 5 167 62 

By Heat, Light and Water, per Abstract 6 866 21 

By Chemical Supplies, per Abstract 7 15 00 

By Seeds, Plants and Sundry Supplies 8 502 26 

By Fertilizers, per Abstract 9 223 87 

By Feeding Stuffs, per Abstract 10 200 75 

By Library, per Abstract 11 

By Tools, Implements and Machinery, Abstract. .12 1068 63 

By Furniture and Fixtures, per Abstract 13 274 79 

By Scientific Apparatus, per Abstract 14 11 95 

By Live Stock, per Abstract 15 599 42 

By Traveling Expenses, per Abstract 16 312 60 

By Contingent Expenses, per Abstract 17 163 00 

By Buildings and Repairs, per Abstract 18 750 00 

Total receipts $15105 00 

Total expended $15105 00 



(43) 

auditors' certificate. 

We, the undersig-ned, duly appointed Auditors 
of the Corporation, do hereby certify that we have 
examined the books and accounts of the Ag-ricul- 
tural Experiment Station of the University of 
Idaho, for the fiscal year ending- June 30, 1895; that 
we have found the same well kept and classified as 
above, and that the receipts for the year from the 
Treasurer of the United States are shown to have 
been $15,000, and the corresponding- disbursements 
Sl5,000, for all of which proper vouchers are on 
file and have been by us examined and found 
correct, thus leaving- no amount unexpended. 

And we further certify that the expenditures 
have been solely for the purposes set forth in the 
Act of Cong-ress approved March 2, 1887. 

signed: Wm. Kaufmann, ^ 

Vice-Pres. Board of Reg-ents I * ... 

A. J. Green, ^^ Auditors. 

Sec. Board of Reg-ents. j 

{Seal of Institiition .•) 

ATTEST: 

R. S. Browne, 

Treas. Board of Reg-ents. 



For the fiscal year ending- June 30, 18%, the 
Board of Reg-ents submitted to the Department of 
Ag-riculture a report, of which the following- is a 
true copy: 

EINANCIAI^ STATEMENT. 

The Ag-ricultural Experiment Station of the 
University of Idaho in account with the United 
States Appropriation. 



(44) 



RECEIPTS. 

To receipts from the Treasurer of the United States 
as per appropriation for fiscal year ending- June 
30, 1896, as per Act of Cong-ress approved March 
2, 1887 $15000 00 

To Warrants refunded 

Total receipts $15000 00 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

By Salaries, per Abstract 1 $ 6382 79 

By Labor, per Abstract 2 3807 52 

By Publications, per Abstract 3 127 25 

By Postag-e and Stationery, per Abstract 4 321 00 

By Freig-ht and Eixpress, per Abstract 5 395 73 

By Heat, Light and Water, per Abstract 6 594 60 

By Chemical Supplies, per Abstract 7 10 00 

By Seeds, Plants and Sundry Supplies 8 491 09 

By Fertilizers, per Abstract 9 147 50 

By Feeding- Stuffs, per Abstract 10 56 72 

By Library, per Abstract 11 4 09 

By Tools, Implements and Machinery, Abstract. .12 1174 26 

By Furniture and Fixtures, per Abstract 13 89 75 

By Scientific Apparatus, per Abstract 14 86 35 

By Live Stock, per Abstract 15 255 40 

By Traveling- Expenses, per Abstract 16 178 95 

By Contingent Expenses, per Abstract 17 127 00 

By Building-s and Repairs, per Abstract 18 750 00 

Total receipts $15000 00 

Total expended $15000 00 

auditors' certificate. 

We, the undersigfned, duly appointed Auditors 
of the Corporation, do hereby certify that we have 
examined the books and accounts of the Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station of the University of 
Idaho, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 18%; that 
we have found the same well kept and classified as 
above, and that the receipts for the year from the 
Treasurer of the United States are shown to have 
been $15,000, and the corresponding disbursements 



(45) 

S15,000, for all of which proper vouchers are on 
file and have been by us examined and found 
correct, thus leaving- no amount unexpended. 

And we further certify that the expenditures 
have been solely for the purposes set forth in the 
Act of Congress approved March 2, 1887. 

signed: Wm. Kaufmann, ^ 

Vice-Pres. Board of Reefents I » -,., 

A. J. Green, |- Auditors. 

' Sec. Board of Reg^ents. J 
{Seal of Institution :) 
ATTEST: 

R. S. Browne, 

Treas.. Board of Reg-ents. 

Up to the date of the publication of this report 
we have received during* the current fiscal year 
Hatch money to the amount of $7,500, and have 
expended $7,500. 

DEPARTMENT OF INSTRUCTION. 

Having" g-iven a full and comprehensive state- 
ment of the financial operations of the institution, I 
will now direct your attention to the scholastic side 
of the University. 

Since its opening- the institution has enjoyed 
uninterrupted prosperity, and during- no portion of 
its history has the progfress been so marked and 
satisfactory as during- the last two years of its life. 
The year ending- June 11, 1896, was by far the 
most effective of the four years, and the year now 
well advanced at the time of this writing-, is 
marked by a g-reater attendance than heretofore, 
by a better student spirit, by g-reater industry and 
devotion to study, and by hig-her standards of 



(46) 

student conduct. The attendance last year reached 
in all departments, 286, distributed as follows: 

Seniors 4 

Juniors 4 

Sophomores 7 

Freshmen 27 

Total Colleg-e Students .... 42 

Third Year Preparatory 40 

Second Year Preparatory 55 

First Year Preparatory 125 

Special Students 58 

Making- a Total of 320 

Deducting- names inserted twice, 20; and such 
music students as are not enrolled in the Univer- 
sity proper, 14; we have a net enrollment for the 
year of 286. At the time of writing* this report 
there are enrolled — 

Post Graduate Students 4 

Seniors 5 

Juniors 7 

Sophomores 15 

Freshmen 34 

Total Colleg-e Students 65 

Senior Preparatory 39 

Second Year Preparatory 60 

First Year Preparatory 55 

E^nrollment to date 218 

When the institution was first opened but one 
student of colleg-e g-rade applied for admission. 



(47) 

During- the year a Freshman Class of five members 
was org-anized, four of whom graduated last June 
in the Class of 1895. The institution opened this 
year with an enrollment of sixty-four students 
qualified to enter upon college work. This we 
regard as a remarkable showing, indicating in 
unmistakable terms that the institution is able to 
hold its students, that the thirst for knowledg^e is 
being increased, that the institution and its facili- 
ties are being appreciated and that an educational 
awakening characterizes our people. Many older 
institutions, under more favorable conditions, were 
notable to evolve so large a proportion of college 
students out of a total patronage in the same 
length of time. Nor must it be assumed that the 
requirements for admission are of such a character 
as to make entrance upon the college work of our 
University so easy or the colleg-e work of such a 
low grade as to make our claim a mere pretense. 
The requirements for admission are as high as 
the educational status of the state will warrant, 
being nearly as high as in most eastern institutions, 
and the quality of instruction fully equal to that 
imparted anywhere. It will be observed that the 
First Year Preparatory is not so fully attended as 
heretofore. This we regard as a propitious cir- 
cumstance. When the institution w^as first opened 
a Sub-Preparatory Class was found necessar}^ to 
meet the requirements of the students who came 
long distances to attend the University. This 
class, after a time, was discontinued and the 
requirements for admission to the First Year 
Preparatory were gfradually raised. Some who 
apply are not able to enter upon the first year 
work, but the attendance in the first year has not 



(48) 

been reduced by exclusion, but indicates a gradual 
improvement in the teaching- in our country and 
villaofe schools, due to the inspiring- influence of 
the University. The catalog-ues have g-one forth 
to the school authorities, teachers, parents and 
young- people of our State, and as a result the 
teaching- in the common schools has had a more 
definite aim, and the 3^oung' people have been pre- 
pared at the same schools to enter upon the Second 
Year Preparatory, or upon the Senior Preparatory. 
The hig-h schools of Boise, Moscow, Wallace, 
Genesee, Lewiston, Hailey and other cities in the 
State are already sending- us young- men and 
women qualified to enter upon the Freshman class. 
The Faculty is now preparing- a plan, which has 
already been submitted in a preliminary way, to 
the leading- superintendents, principals and school 
authorities throug-hout the State, and by them 
unanimously approved, whereb}^ the common 
schools of the State may be broug-ht into closer 
working- relations with the University, and every 
student in advanced classes be made to feel the 
beneficent interest the University has in his or her 
educational advancement. The plan consists of a 
series of University entrance examinations which 
will be submitted from time to time to the schools 
co-operating-. It is confidently believed that with 
the return of g-ood times, under the influence of 
this plan the attendance upon the University will 
be speedily doubled. 

FIRST ANNUAL COMMENCEMENT 

From June 7th to 11th, inclusive, occurred the 
First Annual Commencement of the University of 
Idaho. This was a season of very g-reat interest, 



(49) 

as a class of four was to be graduated and receive 
the first Baccalaureate Deo^rees conferred by the 
institution. Following" is the prog-ram of exercises 
for the Commencement week. 

Sunday, 2:30 p. m. 
BACCALAUREATE ADDRESS, 
, President Gault. 

Sunday, 8:00 p. m. 
ANNIVERSARY Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. 
President Bryan, 
Washing-ton Ag*ricultural Colleg^e. 

Monday, 8:00 p. m. 
ANNUAL CONCERT, 
Department of Music. 

Tuesday, 8:00 p. m. 

UNIVERSITY ORATION, 

W. E. Borah, 

Boise City. 

Wednesday, 8:00 p. m. 

ORATORICAL CONTEST. 

Watkins Medae. 

Thursday, 2:00 p. m. 

COMPETITIVE DRILL, 

Cadet Corps. 

Thursday, 8:00 p. m. 

GRADUATING EXERCISES, 

Conferring of Degrees. 

As it was expected that these exercise would 
be larg-ely attended, and, as upon previous public 
occasions, not one-third of those who desired to 
attend could be accommodated in the Assembly Room 
of the University, the unfinished Auditorium was 



(50) 

prepared at a slig-ht expense. Althoug-h a rou^h 
unfurnished room it answered the purpose, except 
that it was cold, and brick and mortar dust rattled 
down at times from the unfinished walls. But our 
audiences regfarded these as minor inconveniences 
so anxious was the public g-enerally, as well as 
visitors from a distance, to witness these interest- 
ing- exercises. One thing* was apparant and that 
was that the Auditorium, capable of seating* about 
a thousand people, must be finished at once for the 
accommodation of the institution. E^ven a room of 
this capacity is insufficient for public Commence- 
ments, for upon Commencment nig-ht every inch of 
space in the Auditorium was occupied and a larg-e 
number of people were turned away who were 
unable to g"ain admission. 

The following- deg-rees were conferred: 

Bachelor of Arts, upon Florence May Corbett, 
Tacoma, Washing-ton. 

Bachelor of Philosophy, upon Stella Maude 
Allen, Moscow. 

Bachelor of Civil Eng-ineer, upon Arthur 
Prentiss Adair, Moscow, and Charles Luther 
Kirtley, Salmon City. 

The Board, which was in session during- the 
Commencement season, attended the various exer- 
cises upon the prog-ram, and were hig-hly g-ratified 
with the prog-ress of the institution, the proficiency 
displayed by the Graduating- Class, and could not 
but reg-ret that these hig-hly interesting- exercises 
could not have been witnessed by the people of our 
State g-enerally. Could this have been done, the 
Reg-ents feel that pride and g-ratitude would be 
expressed in unstinted measures. That within the 



(51) 

short space of four years an institution has been 
developed in our midst that affords such prepara- 
tion — that so g-enerously equips our sons and 
dauo'hters for the work of life. It being- apparent 
that the amount of teaching- required during- the 
current scholastic year would be g-reater than the 
Faculty, as then constituted, could meet, the Board 
of Reg-ents employed the entire g-raduating- class to 
serve the institution in various capacities during- 
the present year. These young" ladies and g-entle- 
men receive for their services $40 a month each for 
nine months, teaching- several classes per day, and 
are permitted at the same time to take such studies 
as they did not have in their respective courses, 
or take advanced or post g-raduate work. The 
success they have already attained in their respec- 
tive departments as teachers, shows that the Board 
has pursued a wise policy, and we can but feel that 
the State of Idaho will share with us in our pride 
that the University is able to qualify our own sons 
md daug-hters for positions in the institution. As 
the University g-rows, some of these ladies and 
g-entlemen doubtless will be advanced from post to 
post until they will be found qualified for some of 
the principal positions of the institution. Others 
in time will pursue plans of their own, and will 
thus vacate their positions, which may be filled by 
succeeding- g-raduates of the institution, and thus 
will come to the University a stimulus to higfh 
standards of conduct and scholarship on the part 
of the under graduate students such as could not 
be attained in any other way. The institution 
cannot g-uarantee to furnish every g-raduate with a 
position, but it can and should furnish positions to 
such g-raduates as have suitable aptitude for the 



(52) 

positions to be filled. E^ven a nominal salary is 
quite a consideration to a young- man or young" 
woman just starting- in life, as the recommendation 
afforded by such employment is worth a g-reat deal, 
the experience acquired is invaluable, and the oppor- 
tunity to continue a year or two long-er in the 
atmosphere of the institution, as well as facilities 
for pursuing- advanced courses of instruction, will 
in themselves be g-reat inducements to accept such 
offers, and the University will be able, without 
impairing- in the least the efficiency of its instruc- 
tional corps, so to economize in the matter of 
increased teaching- as to meet all demands for 
instruction, and at the same time to increase from 
3^ear to year, the equipment for instruction. 

LABORATORIES AND EQUIPMENT. 

The scientific equipment of the institution is 
now worth at the least calculation $25,000. Dur- 
ing- the current year additions to the amount of 
$6,000 will be made. Our appliances are all of 
the very latest pattern and of the best make, having- 
been purchased at the very closest cash prices. 
All of the departments of instruction have been 
streng-thened, and during the last year two new 
departments have been added. 

DEPARTMENT OF MINING. 

Acting- under the instruction of the Commis- 
sioners of Education, Department of the Interior, 
who ruled that the maintenance of a Department of 
Mining- would be a proper charg-e upon the Morrill 
Fund, that department which was established a 
numl)er of years since; was org-anized, a professor 
secured, equipment purchased, a small room set 
apart as office, library and cabinet, and another 



(53) 

room as a laboratory. Neither of these rooms are 
satisfactory for the purpose, but are the best we can 
do under existino" circumstances. So much assay- 
ing* was tendered us that it was found necessary 
to build an annex as a furnace room. By careful 
manag'ement a room 16 feet square was built, with 
brick floor and with corrug-ated roof and sides, for 
about S125. This department is now well equipped 
for instruction in Mining" Eng'ineering' and Assay- 
ing-, and also for malting- commercial assays. For 
these assays regular commercial fees are charg^ed. 

HANUAL TRAINING. 

In September, 1895, the Department of Bench 
Work in Wood was established and an instructor 
secured. It took some time to procure the neces- 
sary equipment. Meanwhile the instructor built 
his work benches and g"ot matters in readiness for 
beg"inning- practical work, but it was not until Jan- 
uary 1, 1896, that it was found practicable to 
beg-in class instruction. This department was 
popular from the first, and very effective work was 
done. It was found necessary on account of lack 
of accommodations to restrict the instruction to the 
Third Year Preparatory; the young- g-entlemen 
taking- the Bench Work in Wood, and the young- 
ladies Wood Carving-. So popular and beneficial 
is the instruction that many of the Second Year 
Preparatory students applied this year for permis- 
sion to take the course. This is one of the 
branches that is required by the provisions of the 
Morrill Act. 

Free Hand Drawing- has always been required 
of all students in the preparatory school as an 
essential element of the industrial training- and as 



(54) 

a part of the necessary compliance with the Morrill 
Act, but not until a year a^o did we have room for 
shop instruction. We are seriously handicapped 
on account of a lack of room. 

During" the last vacation, the coal room which 
was no longer used for that purpose, was con- 
nected with the carpenter shop by means of a door- 
way and is now used for the lathes and other 
machines. But the demand for this sort of instruc- 
tion is now so great that it is impossible with our 
present shop room to gratify the desires of those 
who apply for this form of instruction. We have 
a fine equipment in the way of bench tools and 
machinery, worth at the present time about $1,000. 
Two things are imperative; first, more room, 
second, some means of furnishing power for the 
lathes, saws, shapers, etc. 

LABORATORY ACCOnnODATIONS. 

Our laboratories are now well equipped for 
effective work. Of these there are seven — Chemical, 
Physical, Botanical, Engineering, Agricultural, 
Zoological, and Assaying. In the most of these 
laboratories our greatest need at present is more 
room. In the Chemical Department the general 
and qualitative laboratory has a capacity of twenty- 
five students when the room is finished, that is, 
when the tables, cases, lockers, etc., are fully 
completed. Two years ago, when fitting these 
rooms for the Chemical laboratories our Building 
Fund permitted us only to put in the tops of the 
tables, leaving the drawers and cupboards unfin- 
ished, in which condition they must remain until 
the state makes additional appropriations. At the 
present time there are twenty-eight students in 



(55) 

this Department of Chemistry, so that the professor 
has to divide his class into sections, thus doubling- 
the time required to impart the necessary instruc- 
tion to a certain gTade of students. The Zoological 
Laboratory accommodates but sixteen students; 
there are now twenty-five in one class in Zoolog-y, 
necessitating* two sections, thus requiring" the 
teacher to repeat the work. In the Botanical 
Laboratory we are in a worse plig-ht. The loca- 
tion of the room respecting- lig-ht is such 
that it has a capacity for onl^ eig-ht students 
for microscopic work. There are twent}^ 
enrolled for Botany, thus necessitating- a dup- 
lication of the work. The remedy for this con- 
dition is along- one of two lines: First, a Science 
building- with rooms of sufficient capacity, so 
arrang-ed as to be suitable for laboratories and 
laboratory work, or, second; the teaching- force 
must be increased to offset the time devoted to a 
duplication of the work necessitated by divisions 
or sections of classes now too larg-e to be accommo- 
dated. But no more teachers can be employed 
until the building- is completed, as an examination 
of the schedule of recitations now discloses the fact 
that work beg-ins in the morning- at 8 o'clock and 
is continued without cessation or intermission until 
after 4:30 in the evening-, and is extended over the 
most of Saturday on account of an insufficient 
number of rooms to meet the daily recitation 
demands. 

COURSES OF STUDY. 

For over two years the Faculty has been 
eng-ag-ed in a careful revision of the courses of 
instruction. Last spring- these were adopted, 



(56) 

published in the catalog-ue, and went into operation 
at the openino- of the present quarter. There are 
now nine courses of instruction leading- to deg^rees: 
The Classical, Philosophical, Ag-ricultural, Civil 
Eng-ineering", Mining- Kng*ineering-, a Scientific 
.Course with Mathematics and Physics as majors, 
a Scientific Course with four }ears of Chemistry 
as a major, a Scientific Course with four years of 
Zoolog-y as a major, and a Scientific Course with 
four years of Botany as a major. These courses 
of study have been very carefull}^ drawn and reflect 
the prog-ressive spirit of the ag^e, and modern 
methods of instruction. It is now possible for a 
student to g-raduate from the University and g^o 
forth qualified as a Scientific Ag-riculturist or 
Horticulturist, a Mining- E^ng-ineer, a Civil 
Eng-ineer, a Chemist, an Kntomologfist or a 
Botanist, and devote himself to the scientific pur- 
suit for which he has been prepared throug-hout 
the colleg-e course. An examination of the present 
enrollment in the colleg-e department shows that 
there are eng-ag-ed in these severalcourses, colleg-e 
students as follows: 

Classical Course 11 

Philosophical Course 13 

Agricultural Course 2 

Mining- Eng-ineering- Course. . . 5 

Civil E^ng-ineering- Course 10 

Mathematics and Physics 9 

Chemistry Course 8 

Zoologry Course 1 

Botan}^ Course 5 

Drawing- and Arts 40 

Music Course 7 

Preparatory in Agriculture ... 5 
Bench Work in Wood 50 



(57) 

Besides these there are students taking- the 
special course in Dairying*, and it is also expected 
that there will be a larg-e class in the winter 
school in Assaying*, which is a short course for 
prospectors, beg*inning* January 9, 1897, and continu- 
ing* three weeks. It is g,lso expected that during* 
the coming* winter special courses in Dairying* and 
Domestic Economy will be offered, but at this 
writing* the plans are not sufficiently matured to be 
announced. 

FACULTY AND INSTRUCTORS. 

Franklin B. GauIvT, M. S., President. 

Sociolog"}', Log-ic, aiid Political Econojny. 
John E. Ostrander, A. M., C. E., 

Professor of Civil Eyig-ineering' and Mechanic 
Arts. 
CharIvEs W. McCurdy, M. Sc, Ph. D., 

Professor of Chemistry. 
WiivivARD K. Clement, Ph. D., 

Professor of Lang'itag'es. 
Louis F. Henderson, Ph. B., 

Professor of Botany. 
John M. Aedrich, M. S., 

Professor of Zoolog-y. 
Charees p. Fox, M. Agr., 

Professor of Ag-ricultitre. 
Edward R. Chrisman, First Lieut., U. S. A., 

Professor of Military Science and Tactics, and 
Adjunct Professor of Mathematics. 
Edward Goodwin, E. M., 

Professor of Mining". 
Harriett E. Cushman, A. M., Preceptress. 

Professor of Literature. 
Sara E. Poe, B. L., 

Instructor in English Literature. 



(58) 

John E. Bonebright, B. S., 

Instructor in Physics. 
I. J. Cogswell, 

Director of Music. 
J. J. Anthony, 

Instrtictor in Wood Work. 
PivORENCE M. CORBETT, A. B., 

Instructor in Eng-lish. 
A. P. Adair, B. C. E., 

Instructor in Mathematics and Engijieerin^. 
C. L. KlRTLEY, B. C. K., 

Instructor in Mathematics and Science. 
Stella M. Allen, Ph. B., 

Assista7it Litjrarian and Instructor in 
ScicTice. 
K. C. Egbert, B. Agr., 

Assistant in Agriculture. 

EXPERIHENT STATIONS. 

In June, 1895, Mr. A. C. True, Director in 
charg^e of the Experiment Station, Department of 
Ag*riculture, Washing-ton, D. C, paid the institu- 
tion an official visit. Mr. True looked over the 
experiment work and also our methods of conduct- 
ing* the business of the station, and expressed him- 
self as very well satisfied with the results of our' 
work up to that time. He required of Professor 
Fox, the Director of the Station, and of the Presi- 
dent of the University, written answers to several 
hundred interrogatories. He examined our system 
of requisitions and reports, of drawing* warrants 
and keeping- our books, and g-ave many valuable 
sug-g-estions as to the efficient conduct of the 
Station. It would be impossible to g-ive an 
adequate idea of the sug-g-estions and requirements 



(59) 

made by Mr. True for the g-uidance of the Board 
of Regfents in the expenditures and accounting of 
these Federal Funds. Our business methods and 
our experiment work are both in strict accord with 
the ruling-s and expectations of the Department at 
Washinofton. In accordance with the action of a 
former Board of Regents, this Board has continued 
the maintenance of three sub-stations, one located 
at Grangeville, one at Idaho Falls and one at 
Nampa. It has been a source of constant embar- 
rassment to the Board and to the manag-ement of 
the institution to administer the affairs of these 
sub-stations in such way as to meet the require- 
ments of the Department of Agriculture at Wash- 
ington, and to subserve the experiment work 
adapted to these several localities. To reclaim and 
improve these farms, to put up the requisite farm 
buildings, provide the necessary machinery and 
implements and labor sufficient to carry on 
extended operations with the variety tests made 
heavier drafts upon the fund than could be met. 
When Dr. True visited the institution he saw the 
difficulties under which we were laboring. Upon 
this official tour, extended to most of the E}xperi- 
ment Stations throughout the west, and as the 
result of several years critical observation of the 
disastrous effects of attempting to do too much 
with the funds at the disposal of the Experiment 
Station, a ruling has been issued by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture of the Federal Government, 
relating to "the work and expenditure of Agricul- 
tural Experiment Stations, dated March 10, 1896." 
In order that there may be no misunderstanding 
upon the part of any one respecting this important 
matter, I deem it advisable to submit herewith this 
ruling entire, which is known as Circular No. 29, 
Department of Agriculture. 



(60) 
UXITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 



WORK AND EXPENDITURES OF AGRICULTURAL 
EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

In connection with examinations of the work 
and expenditures of the Agricultural E^xperiment 
Stations established in accordance with the Act of 
Congress of March 2, 1887, under authority given 
to the Secretary of Agriculture by Congress, ques- 
tions have arisen which have seemed to make it 
advisable to formulate the views of this Depart- 
ment on certain matters affecting the management 
of the stations under that Act. The statements 
given below have therefore been prepared to cover 
the points which seem to require special attention: 

EXPENDITURES FOR PERMANENT SUB-STATIONS. 

This Department holds that the expenditure of 
funds appropriated ifi accordance with the provis- 
ions of the Act of Congress of March 2, 1887, for 
the maintenance of permanent sub-stations is con- 
trary to the spirit and intent of said Act. The 
Act provides for an Experiment Station in each 
State and Territory, which, except in cases speci- 
fied in the Act, is to be a department of the college 
established under the Act of Congress of July 2, 
18G2. The objects of the station as defined in the 
first mentioned Act are evidentl}^ of such a character 
as to necessitate the services of scientific and expert 
workers. Most of the lines of investig*ation named 
in the Act are general rather than local, and 
involve scientific equipment and work. It is obvi- 
ously the intent that the stations established under 



(61) 

this act shall carry on important investig"ations 
which shall be of g"eneral benefit to the agfriculture 
of the several States and Territories. The sum of 
$15,000 -which is annually appropriated by Con- 
g-ress under this Act for each station is only suffic- 
ient to carry out a limited number of investig'ations 
of the kinds contemplated by the Act. 

As the work of the stations in the different 
states has developed, it has been found necessary 
to limit rather than expand the lines of work of the 
individual stations. Thoroug-h work in a few lines 
has been found much more effective and productive 
of more useful results than small investig'ations in 
numerous lines. When we consider the nature of 
the investig'ations, the amount of money provided 
for the work of each station, and the fact that the 
Act expressly provides for only a sing^le station in 
connection with each colleg"e, it becomes very clear 
that expenditures such as are necessary to effec- 
tively maintain permanent sub-stations oug'ht not to 
be made from the funds granted by Cong-ress to 
the States and Territories for Experiment Stations. 
The maintenance of permanent sub-stations as a 
rule involves the erection of building's and the 
making- of other permanent improvements. The 
sums of money which can be expended for perma- 
nent improvements under the Act of Cong-ress 
aforesaid are so small that it is clear they were 
not intended to meet the needs of more than one 
station in each State and Territory. 

When the Leg-islature of a State or Territory 
has g-iven its assent to the provisions of the Act of 
Cong-ress of March 2, 1887, and has desig-nated the 
institution which shall receive the benefits of said 
Act, it would seem to have exhausted its powers in 



(62) 

the matter. The responsibility for the main- 
tenance of an Experiment Station under said Act 
devolves upon the g'overning- board of the institu- 
tion thus desig"nated. If the Legislature of the 
State or Territory sees fit to provide funds for 
the equipment and maintenance of other Experi- 
ment Stations and to put them under the control of 
the same governing- board, well and good, but this 
does not in any w^ay diminish the responsibility of 
the board to administer the funds granted by Con- 
gress in accordance with the provisions of said 
Act. 

The wisdom of Congress in limiting the num- 
ber of stations to be established in each State and 
Territory under the aforesaid Act has been clearly 
shown by the experience of the few States and 
Territories which have attempted the maintenance 
of sub-stations with the funds granted under said 
Act. The expense of maintaining sub-stations has 
as a rule materially weakened the central station, 
and the investigations carried on at the sub-stations 
have been superficial and temporary. It is granted 
that in many States and Territories more than one 
Agricultural Experiment Station might do useful 
work, and in some States more than one station 
have already been successfully maintained; but in 
all these cases the State has given funds from its 
own treasury to supplement those given by Con- 
gress, It isalsogranted that Experiment Stations 
established under said Act of Congress and having 
no other funds than those provided by that Act 
will often need to carry on investigations in differ- 
ent localities in their respective States and Terri- 
tories, but it is held that this should be done in 
such a way as will secure the thorough supervision 



(63) 

of such investig'ations by the expert officers of the 
station and that arrang^enients for such experi- 
mental inquiries should not be of so permanent a 
character as to prevent the station from shifting- 
its work from place to place as circumstances may 
require, nor involve the expenditure of funds in 
such amounts and in such ways as will weaken the 
work of the station as a whole. 

As far as practicable the co-operation of indi- 
viduals and communities benefitted by these special 
investig'ations should be sought and if necessary 
the aid of the State invoked to carry on enterprises 
too g-reat to be successfully conducted within the 
limits of the appropriation granted by Cong-ress 
under the Act aforesaid. 

PURCHASE OR RENTAL OE LANDS FOR AGRICUL- 
TURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 
This Department holds that the purchase or 
rental of land by the Experiment Stations from the 
funds appropriated in accordance with the provis- 
ions of the Act of Cong-ress of March 2, 1887, is 
contrary to the spirit and intent of said Act. The 
Act provides for "paying the necessary expenses of 
conducting- investig-ations and experiments and 
printing- and distributing- the results. ^ ^ ^ ^ 
Provided^ however^ That out of the first annual 
appropriation so received by any station an amount 
not exceeding- one-fifth may be expended in the 
erection, enlarg-ement, or repair of a building- 
or buildings necessary for carrying- on the work of 
such station; and thereafter an amount not exceed- 
ing 5 per centum of such annual appropriation may 
be so expended." The only reference to land for 
the station in the Act is in Section 8, where State 



(64) 

Legislatures are authorized to apply appropriations 
made under said Act to separate agricultural 
collegfes or schools established by the State "which 
shall have connected therewith an Experimental 
Farm or Station." The strict limitation of the 
amount provided for buildings and the absence of 
any provision for the purchase or rental of lands, 
when taken in connection with the statement in the 
eighth Section which treats the farm as in a 
sense a necessary adjunct of the educational insti- 
tution to which the whole or a part of the funds 
appropriated in accordance with said Act might 
in certain cases be devoted, point to the conclusion 
that it was expected that the institution of which 
the station is a department would supply the land 
needed for experimental purposes and that charges 
for the purchase or rental of land would not be 
made against the funds provided by Congress for 
the I^xperiment Station. This conclusion is rein- 
forced by considerations of a wise and economic 
policy in the management of Agricultural Experi- 
ment Stations, ecpecially as relating to cases in 
which it might be desirable for the station to have 
land for experimental purposes in different locali- 
ties. The investigations carried on by the stations 
in such cases being for the direct benefit of agricul- 
ture in the localities where the work is done, it 
seems only reasonable that persons or communities 
whose interests will be advanced by the station 
work should contribute the use of the small tracts 
of land which will be required for experimental 
purposes. Experience shows that in most cases 
the stations have had no difficulty in securing such 
land as they needed without expense, and it is 
i)clievcd that this may be done in every case with- 
out injuriously affecting the interests of the stations. 



(65) 

EXPENDITURES BY AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT 

STATIONS FOR CARRYING ON EARM 

OPERATIONS 

This Department holds that expenses incurred 
in conducting- the operations of farms, whether the 
farms are connected with institutions established 
under the Act of Cong-ress of July 2, 1862, or not, 
are not a proper charg^e ag"amst the funds appro- 
priated by Cong-ress for Ag-ricultural Experiment 
Stations in accordance with the Act of Cong'ress 
of March 2, 1887, unless such operations definitely 
constitute a part of ag"ricultural investig'ations or 
experiments planned and conducted in accordance 
with the terms of the Act aforesaid under rules 
and reg"ulations prescribed by the g-overning- board 
of the station. The performance of ordinary farm 
operations by an Experiment Station does not 
constitute experimental work. Operations of this 
character by an Experiment Station should be 
confined to such as are a necessary part of experi- 
mental inquiries. Carrying" on a farm for profit or 
as a model farm, or to secure funds which may be 
afterwards devoted to the erection of building-s for 
Experiment Station purposes, to the further devel- 
opment of experimental investig'ations, or to any 
other purpose however laudable and desirable, is 
not contemplated by the law as a part of the 
functions of an Ag-ricultural Experiment Station 
established under the Act of Cong'ress of March 2, 
1887. Section 5 of that Act plainly limits the 
expenditures of funds appropriated m accordance 
with said Act to "the necessary expenses of con- 
ducting- investig-ations and experiments and print- 
ing- and distributing- the results." 



(66) 



FUNDS ARISING FROM THE SALE OF FARM PRO- 
DUCTS OR OTHER PROPERTY OF AN AGRI- 
CULTURAIy EXPERIMENT STATION. 

This Department holds that moneys received 
from the sales of farm products or other property 
in the possession of an Ag^ricultural E^xperiment 
Station as the result of expenditures of funds 
received by the station in accordance with the Act 
of Cong"ress of March 2, 1887, rightfully belong- to 
the E^xperiment Station as a department of the 
colleg"e or other institution v^ith v^hich it is con- 
nected, and may be expended in accordance w^ith 
the laws or reg^ulations g-overning- the financial 
transactions of the g^overning* board of the station, 
provided, however, that all expenses attending" 
such sales, including* those attending* the delivery 
of the property into the possession of the purchaser, 
should be deducted from the g*ross receipts from 
the sales and should not be made a charg^e ag^ainst 
the funds appropriated by Cong-ress. 

IvIMIT OF EXPENDITURES OF EXPERIMENT STA- 
TIONS DURING ONE FISCAL YEAR. 

This Department holds that expenses incurred 
by an Agricultural Experiment Station in any one 
fiscal year to be paid from the funds provided 
under the Act of Cong*ress of March 2, 1887, should 
not exceed the amount appropriated to the station 
by Cong-ress for that year, and especially that all 
personal services should be paid for out of the 
appropriation of the year in which they were per- 
formed, and that claims for compensation for such 
services can not properly be paid out of the appro- 
priations for vsucceeding- years. The several "appro- 
priations for Experiment Stations under the afore- 



(67) 

said Act are for one year only, and officers of 
Experiment Stations have no authority to contract 
for expenditures beyond the year for which Con- 
o-ress has made appropriations. 

This is plainly implied in the Act aforesaid 
inasmuch as Section 6 provides that unexpended 
balances shall revert to the Treasury of the United 
States, "in order that the amount of money appro- 
priated to any station shall not exceed the amount 
actually and necessarily required for its main- 
tenance and support." The annual financial 
report rendered in the form prescribed by this 
Department should in every case include only the 
receipts and expenditures of the fiscal year for 
which the report is made. 

EXPENDITURE'S BY AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT 

STATIONS FOR A WATER SYSTEM TO BE 

CHARGED UNDER "BUILDING AND 

REPAIRS." 

This department holds that the expenditures 
by Ag-ricultural Experiment Stations from the 
funds appropriated in accordance with the Act of 
Cong-ress of March 2, 1887, for the construction of 
wells, cisterns, ponds, or other reservoirs for the 
storag'e of water, and for piping-, and other mater- 
ials for a system of storing- and distributing- water, 
are properly charg-ing- under abstract 18 in the 
schedule for financial reports prescribed by this 
Department, as being- for improvements on land 
which have hitherto been held to come under the 
head of "building- and repairs." The fact that a 
water system may be a necessary adjunct of certain 
experimental inquiries does not affect the case 
inasmuch as the limitations on expenditures for 



(68) 

improvements contained in section 5 of the Act of 
Congress of March 2, 1887, expressly stipulate 
that these improvements shall be such as are 
necessary for carrying" on the work of the station. 

EXPENDITURES BY AGRICULTURAL, EXPERIMENT 

STATIONS FOR MEMBERSHIP IN AGRICUI^- 

TURAIv AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS. 

This Department holds that membership fees 
in associations and other org-anizations are not a 
proper charg'e ag'ainst the funds appropriated by 
Cong-ress in accordance with the Act of March 2, 
1887, except in the case of the Association of 
American Ag-ricultural Colleg'es and E^xperiment 
Stations, which is held to be an essential part of 
the system of Experiment Stations established 
under said Act. 

THE BORROWING OF MONEY TO PAY THE EX- 
PENSES OF AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT 

STATIONS. 

This Department holds that I^xperiment Sta- 
tion officers have no authority to borrow money to 
be repaid out of appropriations made under the 
Act of Cong-ress of March 2, 1887, and that 
charg-es for interest can not properly be made 
ag'ainst funds appropriated under that Act. 

Approved: 

J. Sterling Morton, 
A. C. True, Secretary. 

Director. 
Washing-ton, D. C, March 10, 18%. 



The station as contemplated by the Act and 
by all the ruling's under the Act, is located at the 
institution to which the Ag-ricultural Colleg-e is 



(69) 

attached, or with which it is incorporated. The 
institution, the oroverning- body of the institution, 
the director and his office, the laboratories, the 
station staff of trained scientific assistants, all of 
these constitute the station. It matters not so far 
as this distinction is concerned, whether there is a 
farm of 1,000 acres or 1 acre, the station is where 
the college is located. The Experiment Stations 
at Granofeville, Idaho Falls and Nampa are sub- 
stations, having- never been reg^ardedby the United 
States as stations, but from the first have always 
been desig-nated as sub-stations, and are referred 
to in all of the public records, and in all of our 
transactions with the Department at Washing-ton 
as sub-stations. Dr. True, after leaving- us, 
visited other stations in the northwest, and about a 
month later visited the station in Colorado, which 
is attached of course to the Ag-ricultural Colleg-e, 
which, in that State, is a separate or detached 
institution. By the time he reached Colorado, Dr. 
True seems to have made up his mind as to the 
futility of trying- to support the sub-stations at the 
expense of the g-overnment. 

At that time Colorado had ^ve sub-stations, 
which, in that State had been located by the Leg-- 
islature but were maintained at the expense of the 
Federal Fund, and under the authority of the 
United States Experiment Station. Dr. True told 
the g-overning- bod}^ and Faculty of the Ag-ricul- 
tural CoUeg-e that the sub-stations would ulti- 
mately be ruled out. The Reg-ents of the Ag-ricul- 
tural Colleg-e of Colorado, took action in the 
matter immediately. They consulted the Attorney 
General of the State as to their powers in the 
matter, and his opinion, g-iven several months 



(70) 

before Circular No. 59, of the U. S. Department of 
Ag-riculture, was issued, coincided exactly with 
the subsequent rulingfs from the Department at 
Washing-ton. 

It would be interesting- to quote long- extracts 
from the 17th Annual Report of the State Ag-ricul- 
lural CoUeg-e of Colorado, as it throws a g-reat 
deal of lig-ht upon this complicated question. 
Attorney General Carr, of Colorado, say: '*There 
is nothing- in the Act of Congress which, in my 
judg-ment, contemplates the establishment of 
Experimental Stations other than those in connec- 
tion with the several Ag-ricultural Colleg-es and on 
and in connection with the Ag-ricultural Colleg-e 
g-rounds. I do not think there is anything* 
in the Act which prohibits the State 
Government from establishing- several inde- 
pendent stations, if it sees 'B.t, but the purpose of 
the Act of Cong-ress seems to be to have 
such stations under the charg-e and control of 
thoroug-hly educated and scientific men and to have 
them operated for scientific purposes, and not 
merely for ordinary farming-. It would seem to be 
a diversion of the Cong-ressional Fund if the same 
were to be applied to any other than purely scientific 
purposes." 

In accordance with this opinion of the Attor- 
ney General and the sug-g-estions of Dr. True, the 
Board of Reg-ents of the Colorado Ag-ricultural 
Colleg-e decided to withdraw all of its operations 
upon the sub-stations and has since centered its 
work upon the home station. 

As the location of these sub-stations was 
purely a Reg-ency act, there being- no Leg-islative 
Act requiring that the Experiment Station in Idaho 



(71) 

should be operated in any particular manner, the 
Board of Ret^ents felt that it was within their 
power to conduct these sub-stations in such way as 
in its discretion would be for the best interests of 
Ag'ricultural Science, in accordance with the pur- 
poses of the Congressional Act and the ruling-s 
laid down in Circular No. 2*). According-ly the 
Reofents made such provisions as would bring* our 
operations wholly within the ruling* of March 10, 
18%. The operations upon these sub-stations 
were restricted to such experimentations as 
involv^ed little expense; no outlays for permanent 
improvements were authorized or implements pur- 
chased, the superintendents in cliarg*e of the farms 
were instructed to carry forward such work as 
they could accomplish alone, with the exception of 
harvesting". Under date of April 2, 1895, Director 
True, of the U. S. Experiment Station, says: 
"Expenditures for permanent improvements at the 
sub-stations should no longer be made from the 
Hatch Fund, and an effort should be made to 
induce the State L/eg-islature to provide for at least 
part of the running" expenses of the sub-stations. 
In g"eneral it should be understood that the work 
of the main station is to be developed and that the 
work of the outlying" stations is to be put on a tem- 
porary basis unless the State shall, within a 
reasonable time, supplement the United States 
funds with appropriations for the maintenance of 
the sub-stations." If the Legfislature does not 
come to the support of these sub-stations, it will be 
necessary for the Reg"ents to wind up its affairs at 
each of these sub-stations in such manner and upon 
such basis as will meet the approval of the U. S. 
Experiment Station, Department of Ag"riculture. 



(72) 

Inasmuch as the central or main station is required 
to be maintained where the institution is located, 
the citizens of Moscow and Latah County presented 
the Board of Reg-ents with deeds for eighty-three 
acres of land adjoining- the corporate limits of the 
City of Moscow and within a short distance of the 
University campus. This land was accepted by 
the Board at their meeting- in June, and is now 
being placed in condition for extended experiment 
work along- the scientific lines sug-g-ested by Circu- 
lar No. 29, and in accordance with the require- 
ments of the law and directions issued from the 
Department at Washing-ton. 

REQUIREMENTS. 

In order that the University may be main- 
tained and continued upon the lines for which it 
was orig-inally org-anized it will be necessary that 
it should have a fixed income for maintenance of 
not less than $7,500 per annum. It is also essenti- 
ally necessary that certain building's should be 
erected and improvements made on those already 
enclosed, and for this purpose the University will 
need quite a larg-e sum of money, and as it is most 
important that an institution of this nature should 
have a steady income and not be dependent upon 
the whim, caprice or imag-inary necessity of each 
session of the Legislature of Idaho, I would sug-- 
g-est that this matter be settled by asking- the 
incoming- Leg-islature to pass a bill levying- a one- 
half (J) mill tax for the benefit of this institution 
for a period of ten years. This will not only free 
the institution from the uncertainty and anxiety of 
living- in a hand to mouth conditicn, but it will also 
r<,'lieve the Leg-islature from the objectionable 



(73) 

feature of addingf a sum necessary foir its support 
to the General Appropriation Bill, and will, I 
think, reccommend itself to all members of the 
Leg"islature. The institution is in a most flourish- 
ing* condition from a scholastic standpoint and were 
such an appropriation made for its maintenance as 
is sugfg-ested, its efficiency will be very larg-ely 
increased, and the good accomplished for the young 
of our State become more and more apparent each 
3^ear. The building-s and improvements absolutely 
necessary for the building up of the institution 
along- the lines desired will be found fully itemized 
and detailed in the report of President Gault to 
the Board of Regents, a copy of which will be 
found on }our table and upon the desks of each 
member of the Legislature. 

Urg-ing your earnest and early attention to 
these matters, I have the honor to subscribe 
myself, Respectfully Yours, 

Sherman M. Cofp'in, 
President of the Board of Reg^ents of 
the University of Idaho. 









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